MinisQy sf You&,
Sports and Cultural Affairs
Government: ef Samoa
Wth the Assistonce of:.
Commonwealth Youth Programme
A d :
United N a t i ~ m
Dme[opment Programme W D P )
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacijk (ESCAP)
United ,Vations Educa fzonal, Scient@c, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Government and nongovemment organizations interns fed in youth dewlupment in Samoa.

Published by:
stry of Youth, Sports and Cultural Affairs
Government of Samoa
@ Govement of Samoa 2001
The Smoa Natioi~al
Youth P o k y 2001-2010 bas been produced under the direction of the Ministry of Youth,
Sports and Cultural AE%rss, the Cbmnment of Samoa's key agency for you& development. Financial and
technical assistance far this important initative was &st received under the Commonwealth Youth Programme
(CYP) with firrther support received by the the United Nations Development Programme (UMlP), the
Economic and S o d Commiskon for Asia and the Pacific @SCAP), the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
Principal Consultants: DK
Peggy Fairbairn-Dundop
G a I t ~ m a h m a
Steven PePcivnt
Regional Advisor (ESCAP): DE ChrEes Kick111
Poliq Dwelopmat Ta8kfor~e:
Jmzet Herrig
US Peace Corps Volunteer
Neal J m s
US Peace Corps Volunteer
KiIat1' AEaidim
US Peace corps
Roina Faafrnntm-Frmatm
Paul Mere&&
Trea511y Wartment- Planning
S i y c B q Ffttz~ari
Oiiver Taitzcuga
Education Department
M m i a MziIitaIo
Statistics Department
Mose Fidv
S M e y Miriwr
N a t i o d University of Samoa
Seidi Z
M m I e l e m
Samoa School of Music
Editor: l
E m m £&we Ycrai
Samoa Polytechnic
Document Lay-out: MP: GaI~maIema~m
S. Percivd
Ms Kit@ Angel
The Ministry of Youth, Sports, and Cultural Agairs authorises the reproduction of textual material, tables and
charts, provided appropriate acknowledgment is given, viz., Samoa National Youth Policy 2001-2010 (SNYP).
The cover desiga and photo montages were bared on original designs by Tricia Tadeo, a youth volunteer who
also assisted with layout and data input,
Graphics and Illustrations:
The official S m o a NaionaI Youth Policy 2001-2010 logo is based on a design by Vaga Tupu, a student of
Papauta Girls High School (1 999).
Photography: MYSCA, Gozr1.011 BensIey, Samoa =sitom Bureau, Tiapapata Art Centre (TAC),
Ron Kub'i and the M~iseum
fur V01kwkunBe (Frankfurt am Nlain). Photo&taphs marked NYP
were taken by the principal consaltant.
material m o t
be reproduced without permission ofthe photographer or artist.

lTIX "
.. ".......".........
!IX ............. "."
Ix ..............................................................................
... ao!s!~ &!yo6 4
~ i[i0
raogr ~
rN tto nrt?~
.."" ""........... . q m ~
ap3wjq % J F ~
x r q ~
g spods "yzno~
3% f a $ a m s "uofl3npoqu~
X! ............ " ...................... .fl PI? m o q 'arnqn3 pm svodg 'yzno~
JS l a z s ~ g q
aq$ uroy a%ssajq
lllA ........... "...."..... '!oo8aya~~17~
alalzug dawi{ro~
aIqaJouoH rasp^ awpd 9% wog awsayy
............ ........................... '11 Z ~ ~ Y UrLx D
r l J
p ~
nBm$ 'ams 30 p?qg aqz mag awsajq
* ................. ...............................................................................
............. " .......................................................................................

trL .. " ...... .................................................................................................................
ZL . .................................................................................. . - 5 3 q
z v o m 3 - 'qq
s~ anpa33 :sa~$
@ n o g ~ a m q
8330ds fa3nqn;g pm wodg ' y l n o ~
jo L a w fsmw
puopmalq p m
puo@ax -spods 'riorpamx gnox p w o p ~
pms p w o g
L9 ... "" ..... '.."..............................*........................=...........'........... ~ M O I 1 V Z X 2 ~
*9 ........ "" ....................................................................
*SZIi2SSI 3 3 E i I D w lParWN x3;y
samsax putr
uoyMasuo3 tsuogwy(a.rg $uaunro.rpus Aaa fsuo~suaunc[
7 m m 3

Abbreviations used in this document
Australian Agency for International Development
Apia Urban Youth Survey
Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
Contracgrtive Prevalence Rate
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Commonwealth Youth Programme
Demographic and Health Survey (1999)
Depamnent of Lands, Suimey and Enviroment
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
Food and Agriculture Organisation
Gross Domestic Product
Gross National Product
Health Education and Promotional Services
Household Income and Expenditure Survey (1997)
Hwnazl Immundeficieflcy MmdAquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Human papilloma vinls
International Gocrementd Organisation
Intmational Labour Organisation
Itemational Olympic Conwrittee
Japan hternational Coopemtion C o d t t e e
Japanese Overseas Cooperation Volunteer
Labour Market Demand S w e y (1 998)
Ministry of Youth Sports and Cultural Affairs
National Environmental Management Strategy
National Environmental Resource Database of Samoa
Non-government organimtion
National Olympic Committee
National Provident Fund
National University of Samoa
National Youth Policy
National Youth Policy Adhoc Committee
National Youth Policy Coordinating Committee
National Youth Policy Development Committee
NZ Ofticid Development Assistance
Oceania National Olympic Committee
Public Service Commission
Samoan Tala (unit of currency: US$1.00 approximately SAl33.00)
Statement of Eeonornic Strategy 2000-2001
Samoa family Health Association
System of Natiotwl Accounts
Samoa National Youth Policy 2001 -201 0
South Pacific Regional Environment Programme
S m o a Sports Federation and National Olympic Committee
Senior Smndasy S c h d
Sexualfy transmitt& diseases
Total Fertility Rate .
Unpaid Howhold Activities Report (1 997)
United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Educirtionat, ScientSfic and Cultural Organisation
United Nations Population Fund
World Health Organisation
Young Men's Christian Association
Youth Service Provider

Dwellig place
Female descendants of the village as opposed to h-nlarrying &vies
The untitled men of a village
Youth groups estabfished under the auspices of different churches
Ceremonial drink made from the root of the kava plant
Fadapotopotog twnaoti
Independent organization
Social obligation
Chiefly system of governance
The Samoan way
In-marrying males
Fale o faulelea
House of untitled men
Faletua ma tau&
Women married to matai
Meeting or council
Fono a matai
Council of chiefs
Ceremonial flywhisk
Work or occupation
Komiti o Tina ma tamaitai
Women's committee
M o n a
Le tago lima
"Out of touch" A reference to being poor
Lima vaivai
Weak hands" A reference to being poor
Angels trumpet (BeEaboma) a haI1ucigent
Maea e tasi
"One rope" A reference to unity
Intellect or thoughts
Malo aufaaasi
United Nations
Son of a ranking chief
Maota o Alii ma faipule
House of chiefs and the village mayor
Mas@ s Faletua ma Wsi
House of wives of the village chiefs
Maota o tamaitai ma Saoao
House of the daughters and sisters of the village
Mea taumafa
Inmarrying females
Malosiaga o tupulaga tdavou
The strength of youth
Blaga atinae
Productive life
Olaga faateagaga
Spiritual life
Village mayor
Pulou aitu
"Magic muskroom'~ducigent
Cent (unit of Samoan currency)
So&a maloloina
Soifitaga lautele
Sports or games
Prison site in Upolu
Tagata matua
Dollar (unit of the Samoan Currency)
Traditional healer
Untitld men
Viage maiden
Tupulaga talavou

Table 1.3-1
Religious &Iffiliation - I991 census and 1999 D33S
Table 1.4-2
Total nuder of brides and grooms by youth age categoryf 1994-1998
Table 1.4-2
Employed youth (15-29) by occqdon, age md sex - 1991 census
Table 1.4-3
Persons 10-29 years by type of main daily activity and gender
Table 1.6-1
Labor participation by age group and gender
Table 1.6-2
1999 enrollment data
Table 1.6-3
Level of educational irttainmerrt for ppulatim 15 years and over recorded in 1999 demographic
and health survey
Table 1.6-4
Population 15 years and over who received further training (1999 Dm)
Table 1.6-5
Publie Service C o d s i o n emp1oovmennt data (February 2000)
Table 1.8-1
EGO'S providing specid needs educatifn in Samoa
Table 1.8-2
Youth (12-29) suicide attempts and deaths by method 1988-1999
Tabb 1.8-3
Villages with 5 or more youth suicides, 1988-April 2000: total suicides, average age,
youth %, and Sex
Table 1.8-4
Young persons sentenced to prism by offence and table
Table 1.8-5
had tried smoking, alcohol or spirits and marijuana by broad age gmups and gender
Table 1.8-6
10-1 9 year old youth who had tried smoking , alcohol or spirits and marijuana by broad occupation
and gender
Table 1.8-7
Estimated drop-outs by level for 1995-1999
Table 1.8-8
Student drop-olrts at the end of year 8 for government schools by district (1998-1999)
Table 1.8-9
Percentage of horneholds, by region with physiCaaly/menMy disabled persons (1991)
Table 1.9-1
Youth service provider matrix (September 1999)
Table 2.1 - 1 Primary causes of admission and deaths (1996)
Table 2.1-2
Sexually active population and Gudy planning use (1999 DHS)
Table 2.1-3
ZJretdewe of obesity
Table 2.1-4
Number of those never bem beend (15-49 yem) by whether or not they have ever had sexual
intercourse (1 999 DHS)
Table 2.2-1
Tb.e f o d
e d u d m system (1999)
Table 2.2-2
Selected schooi fees f%r 2000 (full year unless stated otherwise)
Table 2.2-3
Average transition rate over the 1995-1999 period
Table 2.2-4
Estimated direct expenditure (1999-2000) at government colleges and junior secondary schools
Table 2.3-1
Workers and average weekly wage in the public and private sectors by gender (1996 Labour Market
Table 2.3-2
TotaI employed p c m
contributing to the NPF by industiy (1994-1939)
Table 2.3 -3
Youth (10-29 yeam) by full-time activity and sex
Table 2.4- 1
Persons sentenced to prison (1995-1998) by broad age group and gender
Table 2.4-2
Persons placed under probation (1995-1998) by broad age group and gender
Table 2.4-3
Persons sentenced to prison and placed under probation (1995-1998) by broad age group and
TabIe 2.4-4
Persons sentenced to prison (1995-1998) by address and place of offence
Table 2.6- 1
Spoi-ting assoeiatiom register& with the Samoa Ami.&ur Sports Federation and National Olympic
Table 2.5-2
Sports DeveIapment Programma by h4YSCA in dldmration with Samoa Sports Federation and
N & d Olmiic Ckmmittee
Figure 1.1-1
Seven factors influencing youth development
Figure 1.2-1 Viage structure
Figure 1.3-1 I999 DNS population by religious f i a t i o n
Figure 1 -4- 1 Population pyramid ffam the 1991 cesrsus and the mid-year popuiation estimates for 2000
Figure 1.4-2 Samoa's population for 1986,199 1,1996 and 200 1
Figure 1.4-3 Youth as % of total mid-year population estimate for 2000
Figure 1.4-4 Youth in the population (1991 census)
Figure 1.4-5 Brides and grooms 1 5-24 years of age 1994- 1998
Figure 1.46 Femaldmale ratios: separateddivorcPxl and widowed (1991)
Figure 3.4-7
Corrected age specific fertility rates 1991
Rgure 1.4-8 Still birtfis per 1,000 at government health facilities, 1995
Figme 1.49 Pemm 10-29 y m
by type d
activity aad sex
Figure 1.4-10 Man daily activiw, 30-29 year aye p u p , KiES Report (1997)
Rgure 1.5-1 Organisations in which youth participate
Figure 1.5-2 Levels of participation
Figure 1 5 - 3 Traditional avenues for youth views to reach village council decision making
Figblre 1.6- I
Matai tides given trr f a d e s and males f l99l-IW4)
Figure 1.6-2 Sdary ranges for governmeat emplqees by gend~r,
Febnrary 2000
Figure 1.6-3 Average male and female wages (all industries) recorded at NPF;
quarterly &om September 1994-
Figure 1.6-4 Participation by gender at National Youth Policy workshops held July - November 1996
Figure 1.7-1 The t o d inwrne by sowee rec&itt,ed by pemns 15 years and over in househo1ds for dl regions,
HlES 1997

Figure 1.7-2 Income breakdown by region, HIES 1997
Figure 1.7-3 Breakdown of households with the lowest 20% of total daily eqenditures by region, NIES 1997
Figure 1.7-4 Levels of agriculture activity, Agriculture Census 1999
Figure L,7-5 Level of agriculture &city by r e g i o ~
Agniculture Census 1999
Figure 1.8-1 Elements affecting quality of life
Figure i .8-2 Suicides attempted and complete&, 1979-1999
Figure 1.8-3
Suicide attempts by age group and sex 1990-1999
Figure 1.8-4 Youth and all other suicide attempts 1990-1999
Figure 1.8-5 Youth (12-29 years) suicide deaths by method 1988-1999
Figure 1.8-6 Youth offenders sentenced to prison over the period 1995-1998, by age and sex
Figure 1.8-7 Persons under 21 years sentenced to prison in 1995-1998, by type of offence
Figure 1.8-8 Persons under 21 years placed under probatim 1995-1998, by theft and all other crimes
Figure 1.8-9 Persons under 21 years placed under probation 199% 1998, by offenee and gender
Figure 1.8-10 Average ages of yo& under 21 years sentenced to prison and average ages at which they lefi.
school (95-98)
Figure 1.8- 11 Average ages of youth under 21 years placed under probation & average ages at which they left
school (95-98)
Figure 1.8-12 Percentage of youth (1 0-29) who have tried smohg, alcohol and marijuana by sex and full time
Figure 1.8-13 ~ e r c e k e
dfulItime students ( 10-14 yeam) who have tried smoking, alcohol an marijuana by sex
Figure 1.8-14 Percentage of youth (10-19 years) who have tried smoking, alcohd and marijuana by occupation
and sex
Figure 1.8-15 blumul&ve schwi drep-otit compared with Y8-'1'9 national enrolment (1995-1999)
Figure 1.8-16 Tcrtal S c h l drop-outs by level for 1995-1999
Figure 13-17 Tcrtal School drop+& by level for 1995-1999
Figure 1.8-18 Percentage breakdown of household by region, with physically, mentally disabled persons
Figure 1.8-19 PerccTntage of women surveyed by v&i&ter or not they had ever experit311ced domestic violence
Figure 1.8-20 Percentage of victims by age at which violence occurred
Figure 1.9-1 Thematic areas of youth development
Figure 1.9-2 Youth service pcoglidm
Figure I. 10
Youth profile s

Figure 2.1-1 Two main sourats of Pmmy He& Care
Figure 2.1-2 Public Wea1th Sector
January -May 2000, by gender
Figure 22-6 Age groups at which those vvho had never been manied first experienced sex
Figure 2.1-7 Percent of youth 10-29 years old who had not eaten any fruit, greens or gther vegetables the day
before by gender
Figure 2.1-8 Obesity among youth 20-29 years old (1991-1995) study
Figure 2.1-9 Regular smokers by gender among youth 10-29 years of age
Figure 2.1 - 10 Regular smokers by age group, gender
Figure 2.2- 1 Government and Non-govement schooIs by level
Figure 2.2-2 Government and Non-government enrolment by academic year
Figure 2.23 Average k;msitim rate (1895-1999)
Figure 2.2-4 Expenditure breakdown betwm govement Junior Secondary Schools and the m11eges (1999-
Figure 2.2-5 Per &dent direct expenditure and enrolment at the four govement colleges (estimated fw 1999-
Figure 2.25 &&arison of direct expenditure and enrolment at the four government colleges (estimated for
Figure 2.2-7 1999 enrollment by school year (level): gender & projected population
Figure 2.2-8 Current status of Overseas scholmhrp studems:l990-1999
Figure 2.2-9 Pluticipation rates: 1996- 1999
Figure 2,2-10 All secondary studmts enrolled in 1999 and estimate of those not at school
Figure 2.3-1 Employed youth (15-29) by broad economic activity group and gender (1991 Census and 1999
Figure 2.3-2 ~otal'workers in Public and Prim& Sector by gender (998 Labour Market Demand Survey)
Figure 2.3-3 Total employed persons contributing to NPF (1994-1999)
Figure 2.3-4 Tot& employed persons contributing to the NPF by gender (1999)
Figure 2.3-5 'Tilew etqbymazt'' deparhtse by gender (1998)
Figure 2.4-1 Persons sentenced to prison by broad age groups (1995-1998)
Figure 2.4-2 Permis sentenced b prism, by crime, gmder and broad age groups (1995-1998)
Figure 2.4-3 Persons placed under probation by broad age groups (19%- 1998)
Figure 2.4-4 Youth placed under probation for theft related crimes, by gender, compared with all other crimes
(2995- 1998)
Figure 2.4-5 Male and female youth sentenced to prison and placed under probation (1995-1998)
Figure 2.44 Persons sentenced to prison and placed d e r
probatwn, by gender (1995-1998)
Figure 2.5-1 Comert.ation areas and reserves in Samoa
Figure 2.5-2 Changes in Samoa forest cover - 1954 -1987

The Independent State of Samoa has a very young population. Over 50% of the
population are young people between the ages of 12 and 30 years. This young population
is the major resource for economic development, social change and technological
innovation. Hence, the Government Statement of Economic Stratergy (SES) for the
current national development plan, accorded the priority to Education, Health and Social

The most valuable resource of every country is their youth. The development of young
V Z ~ Z
people is the responsibility and task of everyone. The government, the community and the
young people themselves are the stakeholders. This policy calls for action which
contributes to the economic, social and cultural advancement of Samoan society through
the achievement of self-suficiency and self-reliance.

The Government endorses and enforces the formulation of Corporate Plan and Policy to
assist with the overall National Economic Development Plan. This will ensure
transparency and accountability of government plans to all its stakeholders and thus
encourage their particiapation in providing services.
The National Youth Policy portrays the real situation of youth in Samoa and provides
policies, goals and objectives as well as implementation plans for youth to capitalise on
their strengths and thereby contribute to progress and prosperity in Samoa.
Hon. Tuilaepa S Malielegaoi
Prime Minister

As Minister of Youth Sports and Cultural AfSairs, I am extremely honoured and delighted to
be accorded the privilege to present to the Government, the Stakeholders, the national and
international community but especially to the young people of Samoa our National Youth

Policy 2001 -2010.
This Policy serves to highlight issues that are currently faced by our youth. The issues of
gender balance, social justice, and human rights are the basis of the National Youth Policy
since they are the fi~ndamental ingredients for peace and democracy.
This Policy provides guidance to the Government, the Ministry, and Stakeholders involved in
youth development to formulate and implement programmes for a better today and
tomorrow for our children.
I extend my gratitude and appreciation to all international agencies and experts as well as
our Government and local people but specifically the Ministry of Youth Sports and Cultural
affairs for the work well done. God bless you all.

Ulu Vaomalo Ulu Kini
Ministiy of l.'outh, Sports and CulturalAffairs

The Commonwealth Youth Ministers' meeting held in Port of Spain,
Trinidad and Tobago, 17-19 May 1995 declared that all Commonwealth
governments should, as a means to coordinating efforts to support positive
youth development, adopt integrated national youth policies by the year
2000. This was further agreed to in the National Youth Symposium held
16-18 October 1996, which launched the Apia Urban Youth Survey conducted in 1994.
The Government of Samoa, through the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Cultural Affairs (MYSCA) as
the lead agency, established in August 1997, a National Youth Policy Development Committee
(NYPDC) comprising stakeholders from both within government and civil society. The goal, agreed to
by this group was a National Youth Policy for Samoa by the end ofthe year 2000.
Stakeholder Participation
Representatives invited' from an original list of 24 government and non-government organisztions,
working together with a consultantZ appointed by the Commonwealth Youth Program (CYP) for this
purpose, contributed in varying degrees, to the first draft of a situational analysis of youth in Samoa.
In undertaking this task, both MYSCA and NYPDC referred to and adopted many of the ideas
contained in "Policy 2000- Formulating and Implementing National Youth P~licies"~.
divided itself into nine sub-committees responsible for researching and compiling information on pre-
selected key strategy areas. These were later combinedJ, for the purpose of presentations to be made at
workshops held with government and community stakeholders, under three umbrella sub-committees.
Pathways: tracing the transition from childhood to adulthood including education and
Personal: presenting issues of personal concern such as health and recreation
Participation: with particular reference to decision-making in development.
Each sub-committee elected a person to chair their meetings and these people formed the National Youth
Policy Coordinating Committee (NYPCC). A third tier to the Policy development process was a 4-member
Ad-hoc Committee (NYPAC) formed in late 1998 by the NYPCC to review the draft Policy to improve its
style, content and format (adding graphs and illustrations). The first NYPAC-revised draft tabled for the
consideration of NYPCC is dated June 1999. Briefly, this work:
Presented a comprehensive, albeit incomplete, profile of youth in Samoa,
Identified some of the key issues facing youth,
Reported what the community and other stakeholders had to say about youth concerns as
expressed at a series of 12 workshops held July-November 1998',
Provided the basis for further work required for the Policy to be completed.
MYSCA's Corporate Plan (2000-2003) establishes the Policy within the framework of the Ministry's
strategic plan and provides useful background information and a profile of youth in Samoa.
Adding further impetus to this process was the Pacific Youth Strategy 2005 (PYS 2005) adopted by
Youth Ministers of the Pacific Community at their first conference held in French Polynesia from 30
June to 1 July 1998. This resolution provides a regional strategic framework for addressing the
increasing challenges for Pacific Youth into the next century and recalls the need for governments in the
Pacific region to develop gender-inclusive national youth policies.
Magele L Isaako
Secretary, Ministry of Youth, Sports and Cultural AJYizirs
' MYSCA letter dated 21 July 1997
Dr Peggy Fairbairn-Dunlop, Fairbairn-Dunlop 6( Associates
: A Commonwealth Handhook, Commonweaith Secretariat, 1996
" Ibid. Developed by the Youth Research Centre in Melbourne (1989)
' A total of 443 participants attended workshops organised for youth, adults, school prefects, women, village mayors
@ulriwi), I-eligious leaders, prisoners, and Heads of Government Ikpartrnents.

For every Samoan youth to have the freedom to enjoy all human rights, with equal access and oppertunities
to participate and contribute fully to all aspects of development.
The mission of the National Youth Policy of Samoa is to advocate and establish programmes designed to
enable the spiritual, physical, emotional, intellectual, social and economic development of Samoan youth;
thereby empowering them to achieve a better quality of life for themselves, their families, their communities,
and the nation.
The Policy aims to facilitate and support youth participation in local, national and international forums so that
they may play a greater and more meaningful role in shaping their future and the world they live in. Moreover,
the Policy will foster the mobilization and effective use of resources for the benefit of youth.
* The Samoa National Youth Policy 2001-2010 is like a tree which nurtures the spiritual, physical,
emotional, intellectual, social and economic development of tomorrow's youth.
Students at Faleata Junior Secondary Schooi

"0 le laau e toto nei e manuia ai tupulaga taeao". For the crafters of the National Youth Policy 2001 - 2010,
"The tree planted today will benefit tomorrow's youth", is a phrase which conveys the essence of what t h E Youth
Stakeholders had set
developing a National Youth Policy. It is a seed planted with
sincere hopevo provid
he full participation and contribution of youth to*
all aspects
of developme%.
This Policy outlines a framework in line with the Government's overall develo
and assist youth development activities in Samoa. It is envisaged that it will be adopted
to be the basis and framework for assistances on youth development programme
nomic Strategy.
Members of the National Youth Policy Development Committee (NYPDC), compridsing of t h C various
government and non-government organizations (NGOs), brought together all those in the community who have
an interest and concern for youth, including youth themselves, to share information and views.The response
considerable and over the course of several months, hundreds of people participated in
ed by MYSCA and the NYP Development Taskforce (Adhoc Committee). The workshops
ndsjsfSavaii and Upolu from October to December 1998, and involved youtl&clergy,
officials, prisoners and representatives from the private sector. This information plus ad-
ditional data drawn from a variety of sources and recent studies was later worked into subsequent policy drafts
by a consultant in collaboration with the Policy Development Taskforce. After many months of effort, the
National Youth Policy document began to take shape.
Section One of the Policy document called "The Youth Profile" begins with a description of how Samoan
youth are viewed from a traditional as well as a contemporary perspective. It recommends the age bracket of 12-
29 years to be the official age for youth of Samoa. It also provides information on youth with respects to demo-
graphics, culture, religion, gender, and closes with a listing of Youth Service Providers and their current
programmes for youth.
The Second Section presents information on several key priority areas where youth stakeholders
have identified major problems amongst youth and changeweeded for the betterment of youth. These include:
Youth unemployment
High rate of school drop-outs
Lack of employment opportunities
Lack of viable alternatives for school drop-outs
Limited access to Health Services and information
Youth suicide
Limited involvement of youth in the protection and conservation of the environment
Lack of youth research and data collection
Isolation of vulnerable youth including special needs youth, delinquents and street vendors
High number of youth involved in criminal activities
Absence of a judicial system for juveniles
A comprehensive set of policy statements were drafted and agreed upon byMe Youth Stakeholders in the
first meeting. These Policies were further refined and approved in the Second Stakeholders Meeting along with
the development of Implementation plans outlining the measures and resources needed as well as identifying the
responsible agencies.
The Implementation Plan forms the third section of the policy document and along with the Youth Pro-
file, Key Priority Areas, Vision, Mission and Policies form the framework of the National Youth Policy 2001-
MYSCA in collaboration with the NYPDC will develop a more condensed version of National Youth
Policy 2001-2010 highlighting key infor
and policy statements along with a brochure to help raise aware-
We dedicate the%^^ 2001-2010 to all stakeholders who were involved in its development and may the
pages that follow be a source of inspiration to take appropriate actions towards the fulfillment of our vision.
Members of the Development Taskforce.

Policy Purpose: To better target programs and services to youth within this age bracket.
Policy Outcome: The official youth age for Samoa will be between 12 - 29 years.
Objective 1:
To request Cabinet approval to establish an Official Age Bracket for youth in Samoa to
be between 12-29 years.
Objective 2:
To generate public awareness and acceptance of the Official Youth Age.
Policy Purpose: To draw and build on the strengths of existing social, cultural and religious values which
support youth development.
Policy Outcome: A strengthened relationship between the aiga, faasamoa and young people in addressing
the concerns of youth.
Objective 1:
To explore effective ways for youth and other members of the community to have greater
collaboration in the aiga and community decision-making.
Objective 2:
To strengthen local and village controls over the negative and destructive social itifluences
impacting on youth.
Objective 3:
To strengthen community partnership and traditional values in developing social support
and placement for abused and neglected youth.
Policy Purpose: To ensure equal access by all youth including vulnerable youth to opportunities and
services for their growth and development.
Policy Outcome: Ail Samoan youth to have an improved quality of life.
Objective 1:
Identify and establish support programs and services which facilitate and ensures equal
access and equal opportunity for all youth
Policy Purpose: To promote equitable access and meaningful participation of youth in all areas that
affect their lives.
Policy Outcome: Full and active participation of youth at all levels of society.
Objective 1:
To promote the use of recognised channels for youth participation in decision-making.
Objective 2:
To establish an annual National Youth Forum to facilitate open communication and
sharing of information amongst youth.
Objective 3:
To encourage an understanding of the interconnectedness of local and global concerns.
Objective 4:
To propose youth representrpttion in forums where youth concerns are discussed.
Policy Purpose: To remove gender inequalities and attitudinal barriers for the advancement of all youth.
Policy Outcome: Equal opportunities and treatment for all youth regardless of their gender.
Objective 1:
To raise awareness of gender issues pertaining to youth education, employment and all
other arrears of life.
Objective 2:
To always include gender analysis in youth development programmes and initiatives.
Objective 3:
To promote equitable and fair measures in the recruitment and assessment of youth in
the work environment.
Policy Purpose: To reduce the isolation of special needs youth and to mainstream them into society.
Policy Outcome: Youth with special needs are supported and provided with adequate training opportunities,
services and infrastructure.
Objective 1:
To ensure the equitable delivery of services to all youth with special needs.

Objective 2:
To promote successful partnership programmes between both government and non-
government organization and those responsible for youth with special needs.
To ensure that all teachers receive adequate training to cater for youth with special
Policy Purpose: To ensure thc provision of existing formal and informal counseling services to serve all
youth including vulnerable youth in rural and urban communities.
Policy Outcome: An established comprehensive national counselling service that caters for all and
especially vulnerable youth.
Objective 1:
To enforce existing legislation to protect youth from sexual, explicit and violent media.
Objective 2:
To develop and support the administration of appropriate and humane disciplinary
measures for youth.
Objective 3:
To encourage the use of youth counseling services and facilities as a valid option for
guidance and support.
Objective 4:
To encourage and facilitate effective communication between parents and youth.
Objective 5:
To promote the establishment and training of qualified counselors in all educational
institutions where youth are enrolled.
Policy Purpose: To prioritise suicide prevention for all sectors of the Samoa community.
Policy Outcome: A reduction in the numbers of suicide each year.
Objective 1:
To promote awareness of the underlying causes of suicide and to establish prevention
program initiatives in schools and in the community.
Objective 2:
To strengthen coordination and partnerships between health service providers and youth
stakeholders on suicide preventian initiatives.
Policy Purpose: To promote collective community responsibility for the well being of all youth.
Policy Outcome: All youth in Samoa are cared for in the provision of their basic and developmental
needs which lead lo security and self reliance.
Objective 1:
To ensure families can provide for all the basic needs of youth, education and other
essential needs.
Objective 2:
To instil in youth an understanding of the importance and relevance of social distances
and mutual respect in their lives.
Objective 3:
To provide opportunities for youth and community leaders to work together co-operatively
for the betterment of youth.
Policy Purpose 1: To strengthen networks and partnerships among all youth stakeholders.
Policy Outcome: To promote networking and foster co-operation and understanding across all sectors of
society for the protection and development of youth.
Objective 1:
To facilitate the effective sharing of information and resources among all youth service
Policy Purpose 1: To ensure that health care information and facilities are readily accessible to all youth.
Policy Outcome: A healthy youth population in body, mind and spirit.
Objective 1:
To encourage and facilitate effective communication and networking between health
care providers and youth.

Objective 3:
To introduce relevant subjects into the primary and secondary schools that will promote
healthy living.
Objective 4:
To promote greater collaboration between religious and other organizations in counseling
and supporting youth on health related matters.
Policy Purpose 2: To prevent the occurrence and spread of diseases before they occur amongst youth.
Policy Outcome: Reduced incidences of communicable and other diseases through healthier living
conditions and lifestyles.
Objective 1:
To involve youth in promoting healthy lifestyles in a safe environment.
Objective 2:
To promote youth awareness of the dangers of alcohol and drug abuse.
Objective 3:
To provide appropriate safe and responsible reproductive health education for all youth
to reduce the occurrence of teenage pregnancy and STD's.
Policy Purpose 1: To maximise the learning potential and talents of youth.
Policy Outcome: Lifelong learning that is relevant, productive, challenging and useful.
Objective 1:
To review and upgrade the quality of teaching.
Objective 2:
To improve the quality of the learning environment for all youth.
Objective 3:
To ensure that all youth are safe from harm, abuse and harassment of any kind in their
learning environment.
Policy Purpose 2: To provide viable alternatives for all students to gain employable and livelihood skills.
Policy Outcome: Youth are provided with both mainstream and alternative training and skill building
opportunities which enables them to be employed, self sufficient, and maintain a
satisfactory quality of life.
Objective 1:
To develop strategies to reduce the rate of school dropouts. (refer appendix for alternative
career stream diagram)
Objective 2:
To increase youth employment opportunities through career counseling, mentoring,
professional and vocational career placements and on the job training (OJT)
Objective 3:
To ensure that all youth have equal opportunity to be literate in both English and Samoan
and have access to knowledge and information critical to their lives.
Policy Purpose: To support and promote sustainable income generating activities of youth.
Policy Outcome: Increased productivity, self-sufficiency and a financially stable youth.
Objective 1:
To encourage viable sustainable economic options for youth in particular school leavers,
vulnerable and unemployable youth.
Objective 2:
To provide youth with formal and informal training in a range of skills required for
employment opportunities.
Objective 3:
To provide financial and other support for relevant and sustainable youth initiatives.
Objective 4:
To develop and promote programmes which attract and retain youth to live and work in
the rural areas.
Objective 5:
To explore and encolirage other potential avenues for income generations for
Policy Purpose: To reappraise the importance and relevance of agriculture, forestry and fisheries for
the survival of young people.
Policy Outcome: Increased youth participation and productivity in agriculture, forestry and fisheries.

Objective 1:
To emphasise the significant role of youth in agriculture and the value of utilizing and
cultivating land.
Objective 2:
To ensure capacity building for young farmers through formal and informal training
towards sustainable practices in agriculture, forestry and fisheries leading to food security.
Objective 3:
To promote initiatives that will enable greater youth to participation in sustainable fishing
and agricultural activities.
Objective 4:
To reward the prominent role and contribution by youth in agriculture, forestry and
Objective 5:
To improve opportunities for mutual sharing of knowledge and expertise amongst farmers
and youth.
Objective 6:
To provide equal access for both young men and women in the use of agriculture, forestry,
and fisheries for their economic and social development and welfare.
Policy Purpose 1: To prevent youth involvement in criminal behaviour.
Policy Outcome: Reduce the numbers of youth involved in violent and criminal activities.
Objective 1:
To research and establish underlying causes of youth crime.
Objective 2:
To promote and foster mediation and conflict resolution skills training at all levels of
To build on the strengths of the traditional Samoan systems and religious teaching for
conflict resolution.
Objective 4:
To support the establishment of a crime prevention policy with a specific focus on youth.
Objective 5:
To promote crime prevention programmes in schools and youth.
Policy Purpose 2: To establish a separate judicial aQ rehabilitation process for process juveniles and young
Policy Outcome: Appropriate treatment of youth &fenders in relation to:
A separate process that recragnises the rights and needs of youth.
Appropriate programs and initiatives for their rehabilitation into society as
responsible and productive citizens.
c) A separate detention centre.
Objective 1:
To propose and establish a juvenile court.
Objective 2:
To separate youth offenders from adult offenders by establishing a detention centre
where youth can be counselled and have access to vocational skill based education.
Objective 3:
To establish a community service programme for youth offenders.
Objective 4:
To establish counselling and support services for youth victims of crime, offenders and
their parents or caregivers.
Objective 5.
To establish rehabilitation centre with a strong cultural and skills based component.
Objective 6:
To encourage awareness of legislation that protects the rights of youth. (refer appendix)
Policy Purpose: To encourage and increase the involvement of youth in protecting conserving and using
in a sustainable manner, Samoa's natural biodiversity.
Policy Outcome: A responsible and knowledgeable youth population engaged in the conservation and
long-term sustainability of Samoa's environment.
To acknowledge and promote successful land use management and conservation efforts
by youth.
Objective 2:
To promote income generation activities by youth which are environmentally friendly.
LF Fq'&"? f-."?lY$j>&C
bd(: l { j p ~ j ~ ~ * (
) "
A -
L p
4 \\ f&
C ) tj ;:_ sfi i"i&-$"
SArJc.& i J Q T i ( J ~ ~ ~ k "
?'([' .
ic,Y. 2uc i

Objective 3:
To preserve and ensure that traditional knowledge, practices and innovations crucial to
the protection of Samoa's environment are passed on to future generations.
Objective 4:
To promote appropriate awareness campaigns and educational programmes which aim
to encourage and strengthen youth awareness and understanding of the importance of
conservation and sustainable management of natural resources.
Policy Purpose: To acknowledge and develop the creative talents and natural abilities throughout Samoa.
Policy Outcome: Greater participation in healthy recreational and creative activities and the development
of natural abilities and talents youth.
Objective 8:
To preserve and develop traditional arts and crafts, oral traditions and sports.
Objective 2:
To promote and teach liberal and traditional arts and encourage the creativity of youth
within a traditional and contemporary context.
Objectives 3:
To establish and improve facilities, programmes and services throughout Samoa for
recreational and creative activities (e.g. village youth centers, sports facilities and a
National Theatre for performing and visual arts.
Policy Purpose: To provide timely and relevant information needed for planning, assessing and monitoring
of youth development.
Policy Outcome: Availability of quality youth statistics on a timely basis.
Objective 1:
To develop a national data cnllection system that will enable youth to be identified and
monitored as a distinct sub
Objective 2:
To identify different kinds d4 data needed to monitor the effectiveness of the National
Youth Policies.
Objective 3:
To facilitate effective data safllection, co-ordination and dissemination among the youth
Objective 4:
To identify and address areas in which youth statistical gaps exist.

IS YOUTH?. ................................................................................................ 3
"E auau le tavae i ona fulu aua o au o matua fanau "
The Aiga; The Samoan Village; Youth Roles and Reponsibilities;
Youth and Marriage
............................................................................................... 6
"Faavae i le Atua Samoa"
Introduction; Contributions by Religion to Youth Development;
Religious Organisations and its Partnership with Government
"la tupu i se fusi"
Overview; Population Composition; Life Expectancy; Dependency Ratio;
Where Youth Are; Population Density; The Samoan Household; Youth and
the Matai System; Youth and Marriage; Fertility; Teenage Pregnancies;
Youth and the Economy; Youth in Public Service; Census 2001
"E au i le tauola e au i le fagota"
Youth Participation in Perspective; Organisations in which Youth Participate;
Levels of Participation; Youth Participation in Traditional Samoan Society;
Recommendations Concerning Youth articipation from NYP Workshops
"E le sua se lolo i se pop0 e tasi"
Gender in a Changing International Context; Education; Female Matai;
Women and Politics; Economic Activity; Youth in Public Service;
Youth Travelling Overseas; Gender Representation in National You
Workshops; Village Mayors; Women in Executive Positions in Government;
Young Women in Sports
"Ua faalaulautoafa le laueleele"; '"Ua le sua tumu i vao"
Poverty in the Context of the faa-Samoa; HIE Analysis of Poverty in Samoa;
Relative Poverty; Food Poverty; Basic Needs overty; Agriculture and
Poverty; Household Size and Poverty
"0 le luau e tu ae oia"
Suicide; Youth Suicide; Delinquent Youth and Incarcerated Youth; Youth
Involved in Drug and Alcohol Abuse; Pregnant Teenagers; Unemployed
Youth including School Dropouts and Out-of-School Youth; Youth with
Special Needs; Working Children Including Urban Street Vendors; Youth
Living in Dysfunctional Families Including those Experiencing Domestic
Violence and Sexual Crimes Such as Incest
"Ua se afa e tasi le upega "
Youth Service Providers in the Context of the Statement of Economic Strategy
2000-2001; The Youth Service Provider Network; MYSCA - A Possible Focal
Point for Youth Development

Youth are valuable members of Samoan society. To Samoans, youth is more than just a developmental phase
pertaining to age and hormonal change. In the faa-Samoa, status within the extended family system is important.
Thus it is possible for a 60-year-old person to be a welcome part of a church youth group. It is equally possible
for a youth to have a seat in the village council of chiefs if, in recognition of lineage andlor service, he or she has
been bestowed a matai title.
The transition from youth to adulthood in Samoan society
Ftgure 3 . l - l : Seven Factors
also takes place with marriage or giving birth. Under the
InRuenctng Youth Development
Marriage Ordinance Act of 1961, the legal age definition for
marriage is 16 years for the wife and 18 years for the husband.
Without parental consent, the minimum age is 21 years for
males and 19 years for females. Once married, or with child,
a young person was traditionally expected to take on a
nurturing role in the family. However social attitude has
changed and some unmarried mothers have returned to school
to complete their studies (e.g. UPY level).
While children in Samoa under 8 years of age cannot be held
criminally responsible (Crimes Ordinance 1961), young
persons between 8 and 14 years can be charged. The legal
definition of a "young person" is a person between 14 and 21
years of age. Other legislated minimum ages are for employme
sexual consent (16 years) and voting (21 years). This is a challenging time, full of choices and obstacles, of
obligations and duties. It is a transitional period between the station of the tamaitiiti (child) and tagata matua
(adult). It can be a turbulent period where great changes in life are usually exprienced, with developments to the
spiritual, emotional, intellectual, physical, social, cultural and economic life of the individual (Figure 1.1-1). This
Policy takes a holistic approach to youth confirming youth needs to be supported and nurtured so that the
transition to adulthood is secure, productive and positive.
Samoa, like its youth, is also in a state of flux, and is experiencing rapid
change. Improvements in information and travel technologies have
dramatically reduced Samoa's isolation from the rest of the world. Along
with these changes come influences adversely affecting the wellbeing of
youth. Issues such as HIVIATDS, youth suicide, lifestyle diseases, exposure
to violence in the media, environmental degradation, and substance abuse,
to mention a few, are of increasing concern to the young people of Samoa.
Global influences challenge basic Samoan ideals and values in powerful
ways. Whereas Western culture promotes the independence of the nuclear family, the Samoan way involves a
much wider host of caregivers. Samoans have their own perspective on the younger generations and how they
should be raised within their own cultural system. It is in the context of communal life that the village itself plays
a role in raising youngsters.
For planning and data collection
purposes, this Policy defines youth
as those people from 12 to 29 years
inclusive. Programs may not
necessarily be limited to this age
bracket as it is recognized that
issues continue to emerge among
ever younger age groups and older
groups still need to address patterns
of behaviour and thinking carried
into adulthood from the turbulent
period of youth. The effectiveness
of the Policy to adequately focus
on the diverse circumstances facing
youth over such a wide age range
needs to be assessed at various
points during the 10-year term.

11.2 YOUTH
The National Youth Policy promotes an equitable share by youth in Samoa's rich cultural heritage.
The Aiga
The aiga (Samoan family) is the foundation of the faa-Samoa. It is through the proper functioning of its various
members that the social and economic well-being of the aiga is assured. Youth roles and expectations are defined
in and around the aiga. The notion of va-fealoaloai is a crucial concept in maintaining order and respect amongst
members of the aiga and community. At the head of each aiga is the matai, who is elected by family members.
Traditionally, the family matai is responsible for maintaining the family's dignity and well-being by administering
family affairs; settling family disputes and providing for an equitable allocation of family resources. The matai is
also the family representative in the village fono, which is the judicial authority of each nuu (village). Family
members are expected to render their services to support their matai and to meet the social obligations of their
aiga and community. Youth are important to the aiga and community because they provide visible evidence of
support and continuity.
The faa-Samoa promotes the sharing of wealth, a concept that is particularly important when it comes to meeting
faalavelave (social obligations). These obligations include giving to the church, the village for local activities, or
to support the family at special occasions such as weddings and funerals.
The Samoan Village
Samoan villages comprise four important houses: theMaota o Alii ma Faipule (the seat for the council of chiefs),
the Maota o Tamaitai ma Saoao (for village maidens), the Maota o Faletua ma Tausi (for wives including those
marrying into the village), and the Fale o Taulelea (the village workforce comprising untitled men of the village).
When Christianity arrived, Autalavou (youth groups established under the auspices of the church) were formed
but still within the context of the village hierarchy.
The Fono a iMatai is the institution responsible for community
affairs and development. Its importance is indicated by the
fact that 86% of the population lives under the matai system
(1991 Census). The aualuma or village maidens, is also very
important in community affairs. In villages strong in tradition,
all aiga are expected to have representatives in these two
institutions. Although youth (by age definition) can be members
of these two houses, the greater number of youth belong to
the aualuma, the aumaga and the autalavou. There may be a
number of autalavou in each village just as there are a number
of churches.
Decision-making in the faa-Samoa is by consensus, often after long debates on the matter under consideration.
All members of the aiga can contribute to family discussions but to varying degrees.
With regards to community decision-making, the family matai speaks for and on behalf of their aiga. Once the
Sono a matai have made a decision, all members of the aiga are required to respect and abide by the village
decision. While the faa-Samoa places an inherent emphasis on age and social status as a prerequisite to having a
voice in the use of family and village resources, there are recognized avenues for youth participation in family
which the fono allows for youth participqtion varies from village to
te on issues concerning youth, others forbid this practice. Some villages
may have general and flexible rules, and others have strict rules covermg
almost every aspect of life right down to personal matters such as length
of hair, dress code and prayer curfews.
Youth Roles and Responsibilities in the Village Structure
uth roles and responsibilities within the nuu are normally carried out
members of the aumaga and aualuma. The autalavou, under the
guidance of the churches, also have development initiatives that can
benefit the entire village.

i 7 ,
J ' +f i ~
i e ~ -
2 : L+b
t c;riS ~ 2 %.s ;
& I
~ \\ * > cJ ,qby1;
: t - t ' s ' F
' * ' \\ &
d ! j ] 3 rk e t ''f' L'

1 f J d r J

All taulelea belong to the aumaga until such time as they are chosen by the family to be a matai. They are the
strength of the village and its work force: the farmers, the fishermen, the cooks and, in former times, the warnors.The
chosen manaia leads the aumaga. Taulelea attend to the needs of the fono a matai. It is in rendering service
(tautua) to the matai at the council meeting that the young men learn their traditional roles. Selecting matai is a
complex affair ultimately requiring a consensus of the assembled members of the aiga. Service is a significant
factor in choosing a matai as expressed in the Samoan saying: "0
le ala i le pule o le tautua" (the way to
authority is through service). The decision is also made easier if the encumbent is a direct descendant of the title
and is regarded as capable, clever, and knowledgeable of Samoan lore and genealogy. Money and professional
status are now important factors and can influence traditional considerations.
thefaa-Samoa, the embodiment of which is
hospitality, weaving and other handcr
with small development projects. sother villages have the aualuma,
faletua ma tausi, and Komiti o Tina ma Tamaitai united as a single
entity. It is the norm that young girls join in the aualuma once they
leave school if they do nokhave a paid job. Leadership in the Komiti o
Tina ma Tamaitai is usually in the hands of the matai's wives, while the
wives of the untitled males and unmarried girls usually provide support
Youth and Marriage
Youth who enter into marriage usually do not live in their own home
but have to decide whether they will live with the husband's family or
the wife's family. The fai-ava (in-marrying man) and the nofo-tane (in-

The Samoans had an ancient belief system with many gods governing different aspects of life. Foremost among
these reigned Tagaloaalagi, believed to be the creator and provider of prosperity. Belief in these deities changed
with the arrival of the Christian Gospel by missionaries in the middle of the 19th century. Early missionaries came
from the London Missionary Society (later renamed as the Congregational Christian Church of Samoa or CCCS),
and the Methodist and Roman Catholic churches. Other more recent faiths include the Seventh Day Adventists,
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and more recently still, Islam and the BahB'i Faith. In recent
years several evangelical churches and charismatic movements have emerged. Christianity is the predominate
religion in Samoa.
The arrival of Christianity brought profound change to Samoan
1.3-1 : 1999 WHS Populat~on
culture and society. The national motto, Faavae i le Atua
Welrgtous Afiilnatron
Samoa, acknowledges the christianisation of Samoa. With
respect to youth, the establishment of the Aoga AsoSa and
Autalavou provided an avenue for youth representation. Along
with their manpower contributions, a large portion of household
O t h ~ r
Nut %ad
income from youth is donated to church and village
development. The 1997 Household Income and Expenditure
Survey (HIES) found that donations and contributions to church
nd village are easily the largest regular household expense
over twice the amount spent on education).
eligion is clearly a major part of life for Samoan youth. Both
the 1991 Census and the 199QDemographic and Health Survey
found less than 1% of the population not stating to which
religion they belong (Table 1.3-1). Figure 1.3-1, based on the
1999 DHS, shows the breakdown of the population by religious
Cangregationai Christian Church of Samoa, Malie

affiliation. While the churches have helped shape much that is good in Samoan society, youth today are exposed
to other influences. Youth looking for other spiritual alternatives may encounter serious resistance in their families
and villages. This is often a case of conflict between individual versus communal good.
Although churches have diverse teachings they do share one thing in common, the largest percentage of their
membership is youth. The 1994 Apia Urban Youth Survey found 65% of respondents (9,374) belonged to at least
one organisation. One such organisation to which a great number of youth belong is the autalavou, the youth
group under the auspices of the church. Programs of the autalavou place emphasis on nurturing and developing
religious values and beliefs for their spiritual and social advancement. Autalavou are also involved in a range of
development projects, particularly farming, and also come together to discuss social issues and problems. Almost
all churches have adopted the traditional decision-making model, with separate arenas for women and men.
Although women are half of church membership, their
participation in administrative or religious affairs is not equal
to that of men. In Samoa, women are not generally accepted
as clergy. While the concept of equality is heing promoted
generally, meaningful progress among most religious
organisations is slow.
Contributions by Religion to Youth Development
The single most notable contribution made by the churches in the development of Samoan youth is in the area of
education, both formal and non-formal. Almost one-fifth of all schools are mission schools. In addition, there are
four technical institutions staffed and supported by religious organisations. The aoga faifeau, the first schooling
for most Samoan children, has also been significant in maintaining high literacy and numeracy rate. In addition
are four vocational institutions staffed and supported by religious organisations. These cater largely to school
dropouts who have no where else to go.
Religious Oganisations and their Partnership with Government
An important contribution of the churches is their partnership with government. The Youth Directors Committee,
comprising representatives from various religious organisations, forms the core of the MYSCA's Youth Service
Provider network. This group meets regularly to facilitate national and regional programs for youth.
Church-coordinated youth leaders training workshop, Safotuiafai, Savaii.

SOURCE FOR ALL FIGURES: Statistcs Department unless noted otherwise
A detailed analysis of Samoa's population can be found in the draft 1998 National Population Policy and the
1999 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The Population Policy calls for youth educational programs, both
in school and out of school, to raise awareness of how the growth, distribution and composition of Samoa's
population impacts on health, lifestyle, education, the environment and social and economic development.
Samoa's total population during the 1991 census was 161,298, an increase of 2.6% over the 1986 Census. Just
over 70% of the population live on Upolu. Samoa's underlying population growth rate is about 2.45% a year,
reflecting steady fertility rates and improved mortality rates. Steady emigration reduces the effective rate of
population growth to around 0.5%. From this analysis, the net migration rate amounts to 1.95% or 3,145 migrants
annually. Samoa's population growth rates is one of the smallest in the world, smaller than that of most industrialized
countries. New Zealand, Australia and the United States have significant and
growing Samoan population with an estimated 150,000 in New Zealand alone.
Around 2,000 people emigrate annually to New Zealand: up to 1,100 under
the quota scheme and the rest under other schemes.
While emigration reduces pressure on both the economy (around SAT $120m
was received in remittances in 1999) and the fragile environment, it also drains the country of its most valuable
resource: people - skilled and unskilled.
Population Composition
The population pyramids in Figure 1.4-1 show how the structure of the population has changed since the 1991
census. The momentum of the wider population base in 1991 is beginning to bulge in the older brackets making
for a greater proportion of youth in the 20-29 group. Projected growth by 2001, just over 172,000, is shown in
Figure 1.4-2. The projected midyear population for 2000 is 170,727 of which 60,983 or 36% are estimated to be
in the 12-29 year age bracket. (Figure 1.4-3) The large base for both pyramids reflect a continued high fertility

Figure 1.4-1 : Popuistiot: Pyramid From the 1991 Census
and the Mid-Year Population Estimates for 2000
rate despite emigration. Samoa's young age structure is reflected in the median age: 19.4 years (1999 Demographic
and Health Survey), the lowest in all of Polynesia. This means 50% of the population are younger than this age,
and 50% are older. The projected 1999 population by sex shows 54% of the defined youth population are males
and 46% are females, a sex ratio of 108 males to every 100 females, the highest male dominant ratio in all of
Life Expectancy
1.4-2: Samoa's Population for
Life expectancies at birth have increased
from 46 years for males and 58 years for
females in 1962 to 65 years for males and
72 years for females in 1996 (Health
Department Annual Report 1995-1996).
Although youth make up a large
decline in the proportion of children and
percentage of the total population, the age
structure shows there have been an overall
a corresponding increase in the proportion
0 5 thc elderly over thc period from 1971
to 1901. This trcnd is reflected in the
150000 ;
projcctcd population structure for 2000
(Figure 1.4- i).
145000 '
200 I
children and the elderly).
Figure 1.4-3: Youth as ?& ofTotal
Mid-Year Population Estimate for 2000

Where Youth Are
Urban Apia, with a year 2000 population estimate of 36,120, contains a significant number of young people.
One-fifth of Samoa's population lives in urban Apia, almost 50% of whom are youth. This is around one-quarter
of the nation's total youth population. Around 17,000 youth live in Apia.
The considerable interplay between Samoa's rural and urban areas makes it difficult to clearly distinguish between
the two and this has implications for where to target services. For statistical purposes Apia area is classified as
"urban," and the rest of Samoa as "rural'.' Using this classification, the majority (76%) of Samoan youth reside in
rural areas. The 1994 Apia Urban Youth Survey initiated
by MYSCA with UNDP assistance and conducted by
Figure 1.4-4: Youth*
the Statistics Department found that around 25% of
in the Population
the youth residing in Apia originate from the rural areas,
(1991 Census)
the largest number of whom are from Savaii. The flow
of migrants between regions recorded in the 1991
census revealed gains to urban Apia and Northwest
. ri
*For This Analysis Youth is
Age-Defined as Being 10-29 Years
Upolu but losses to population in the rest of Upolu
and Savaii. This is considered part of the continuing
process of urbanisation with several new settlements
recently established beyond the official urban
boundaries (in northwest Upolu).
Population Density
National population density averages 58 persons per sq. km which is
equivalent to 4.25 acres per persons. Apia contains 565 persons per
sq. km Gust under half an acre per person), northwest Upolu has 161
persons per sq. km (1.5 acres per person), and Savaii is 27 persons
per sq. km (9.1 acres per person). Rural settlement is mainly in small
villages. The 1991 census found one-third of the population in villages
of fewer than 500 people and just over half in villages of under 700
people. A full two-thirds lived in villages of less than 1,000 people. Two-thirds of Samoa's total land area of
2,785 sq./km is on Savaii and yet this island holds 28%, less than one-third of the total population. In direct
contrast Apia has only 2% of the total land area and 21% of the total population.
The S a m n Household
Statistics show that the number of
households in Samoa has been
decreasing. A total of 22,195 private
dwellings were enumerated in the 1991
Census. This fell to 21,807 in 1997
(HIES) and to 20,174 in 1999 (Census
of Agriculture). In the 1999
Demographic and Health Survey, 3,819
households were interviewed, 1005 in
the urban areas (with a population of
Samoan fales are sMi common in rural areas
8,318) and 2,814 in rural areas (with a

population of 20,320). The overall 5% reduction
Figure 1.4-5: Brides and Grooms
in the number of households over the period
15-24 &ars of Age: 1 994-1 998
means, with an increasing population, a greater
average number of persons per dwelling, from
7.2 persons in 1991 to 8.3 persons in 1999 (based
on the population projection for 1999). The
average household size found in the 1999
Demographic and Health Survey was 7.5
persons. For the rural and urban areas, the
survey's average household size was 7.2 persons
and 8.3 persons respectively.
The DHS also collected data on household
composition. Of all heads of households in
Samoa, 85% were men and 15% were women.
A marked difference was found between woman
headed households in urban (20%) and rural (13%) areas. The DHS found that while almost two-thirds of all
households were members of the nuclear family, the fact that a third were other relatives shows that the extended
family is very common.
Youth and the Matai System
In 1996 there were some 18,000 matai in 320 villages -
approximately 56 matai per village or one matai for every
9 citizens. In household terms, this is equivalent to 9 matai for every 10 households. While there is a high number
of matai, it is not known how many of these fall in the youth age bracket but such information would shed an
interesting light on the demography of traditional governance given the high percentage of youth in the population.
Youth and Marriage
A larger proportion of female youth are married (to older men) compared to their male counterparts as shown in
Table 1.4-1 and Figure 1.4-5. Female youth are marrying earlier than their male counterparts by almost 8:l in the
15-19 age bracket. Almost twice as many females are marrying in the 15-24 age group. It should be noted that
the data given here is of certified marriages as recorded by the Justice Department and does not include de facto
unions which are considered acceptable in most cases as far as Samoan custom is concerned.
In addition to marrying earlier than males, female youth have much higher rates of divorce/separation than male
youth. Figure 1.4-6 shows the ratios of females to males who are separated/divorced and widowed. In 1991 there
were almost six separated or divorced females in the 15-19 year age bracket to every one separated or divorced
male. The total for all age categories works out to 1 in 43 females separated or divorced compared to 1 in 199
males. In 1991, there were 107 widows in the 15-29 age bracket compared to 47 young widowers of the same
age group; a female dominant ratio of over 2 to 1. It is not known how these statistics have changed over the last
10 years. Research is required to define the strengths and weaknesses of single parent families in order that
appropriate strategies can be devised for this group.
Figure 1.4-7: Corrected
Reliable measures of fertility
Age-Specific Fertility Rates - 1997
require a sound system of birth
registrations and, despite efforts
SOURCE: 1991 Census
to improve data collection,
records remain incomplete
especially with respect to home
births. The Total Fertility Rate
(TFR) has been estimated at 4.5
(1999 DHS), an indication of
the average number of children
women give birth to during their
reproductive lives (15-45
years). Age-specific fertility
rates in 1991 show that fertility
peaks in the 25-29 age group
(Figure 1.4-7). The 1999 DHS

age at first birth was 22.3 years. Given the earlier marriage rate for female youth, this suggests there may be fairly
widespread contraceptive use. The fertility rate plotted in Figure 1.4-7 shows the number of women in the age
bracket divided by the number of live births in the "past year': corrected against a sample survey which later
revealed higher total fertility rates than the 1991 census.
Teenage Pregnancies
The 1991 Population Census recorded a national total of 204 live
births to teenage mothers, i.e., 15-19 years, during the "last 12
months': This amounted to just under 5% of all live births,
which in 1995, increased to just over 7% with 316 live births
recorded at government health facilities and an estimated
44 deliveries by traditional birth attendants (TBA). The
Department of Health states that younger women are
more likely to deliver in the hospital than in' the
community. The number of live and still births recorded
in government health facilities by age group reveal that
teenage mothers have a higher risk of having still births
at an estimated 16 per 1,000 as compared to the 20-29
year age group with 6 per 1,000 and the 30-44 year age
group with 12 per 1,000 (Figure 1.4-8).
Figure 1.4-8: Still Births Per '1,000
at Government Healih Faciiiiies, 1995
fions in pregnancy among young mothers
Youth and the Economy
Data clearly shows that youth contribute a significant amount
to Samoa's economy. The 1991 Census classified 57,142 people
as economically active. Of this total, 25,387 (45%) were 15-29
Figure 1.4-9. Persoris 10-29 Years by Type d
Aclrvity and Sex
30000 ;

Part-time paid
Figure 1.4-10. Main Darly Actwly,
10-29 Year Age Group
HIES Report (1 997)
Income and
Full-time paid
years old- 17,499 male (31%), and 7,888 female
(14%) (Table 1.4-2). The prominent role played
by youth, particularly male youth, in subsistence
agriculture is also evident by the fact that some
70% of these youth were classified as skilled
agriculture and fisheries workers.
The Unpaid Household Activities Report
(UHAR) of the 1997 Household Income and
Expenditure Survey presents information on
time spent in various household-related activities that have not, until now, been included in the System of National
Accounts (SNA), the framework used to derive the Gross National Product (GNP). UHAR data for the 10-29
year old age bracket is presented in Figure 1.4-9.
The UHAR also determined the "main daily activity7' of those doing the non-SNA activities as shown in Table
1.4-3. When main daily activity is examined by age group, it is clear that most of the 10-19 year olds are full-time
students, with a small proportion involved in economic activities. Among males, 24% were working as farmers,
planters and fishermen while a significant 42% of the females indicated that "domestic duties" was their main
daily activity, over double the number of males involved in domestic duties.
Youth in the Public Service
The Public Service Commission recorded in February 2000 that 978 people under the age of 30 worked in
various capacities in the government. This represents 29% of the entire government workforce. Of these, 614
(63%) were female and 364 (37%) were male.
Young men workrng a taro patch

~uoyed!:,yed JO L ~ l e n b
pue aaBap ayl
p a g e osIe ue:, 'seas~aao
10 'sluaaa leml~n:, ~o %u!l.rods 'Lpmej
~e Lquno:, aql jo s l ~ e d
.raylo uy JaylayM 'amsodxa .aledgyed
qlnod y : , g ~
01 a a ~ 8 a p
aql 33ajje os[e spadse 3 p o u o 3 a
pue s m ~ o u
jemqn3 'ajg ~noq%no.ql
palajjo s a p n y o d d o
p o p : , n p a ~em~ojuy
pue pmloj Lq pap;r~old
sl uopedpynd
~ o j
day aql 'm2hpe~ed
s q
UI -dpl3os %u~3ueape-~a~a
pug Lyqeaq e Bum!nq ul aledyued 6 1 a a p j j a ue3 qlnod q3ym
ol lualxa ayl S I ~ U I ~
ajq a a g m p o ~ d
e pea1 01 L q ~ q e
aq1 pue
uogwnpa '~aqays
'ypaq 'pooj ut -
mIeaJ p;rsLqd ayl ul 8 u p q
.%uraqllaaz puoqoura put! pnpqds I!aqI ylrM %uyuu@aq
30 alels qaql uo spuadap %uqem-uo~spap
pue luamdop~ap
ur a ~ e d p y n d
ymod qqqm 01 luaixa aql '%u!yeads L l p e o l ~

at the workplace. The 1994 Apia Urban Youth Survey found
some 65% of youth belonging to an organisation. In the
rural areas, all youth are expected to be a part of one or
more of the village organisations.
At the international level, there are known to be numerous
events that Samoan youth can participate in but these are
often not taken up due to various reasons including a lack
of awareness of the opportunities, a lack of funding, and
difficulties associated with the nomination to selection
Levels of Participation
National Youth Policy Coordinating Committee
Samoan society is structured with matai at the head of
Meeting, 1999
families and villages. Any youth who is a member of an
organisation does not automatically have full rights to participate at all levels. Stratification of organisations is a
natural tendency and members grow to know their place when they are permitted to voice their opinion and when
they are required to remain silent and trust that others, the leaders, will have their best interests in mind. This idea
is reflected in the Samoan expression "$esili mulimai ia muamai"symbolical1y
meaning the last to arrive asks first
arrival for guidance. This can
bring tension to a group,
particularly when well-educated
or financially wxlred youth feel
they should have more saying.
Figure 1.5-2 illustrates the various
and decision- making)
levels of participation in group
organisations and was used for discussion purposes in the policy development workshops.
Youth Participation in Traditional Samoan Society
In traditional society, holding a matai title is the only avenue that can empower youth at the level of village
governance. The village fono is comprised of all holders of matai titles and is ranked according to importance of
title and seniority. While youth can be conferred matai titles, the change of status and associated responsibilities --
means they are no longer considered or treated as youth. They are, however, more likely to see issues from the
perspective of the younger generations and can, unlike other youth, voice these concerns and interests in council
Figure 1 5 3 : Traditional Avenues for Youth Views to Reach As presented earlier, there are two
Village Council Decision Maklng institutions in which youth are
traditionally expected to be
involved: the aumaga and the
aualuma. While the views of these
formal institutions for male and
female youth can be conveyed
through clearly defined channels to
the village council, this latter body
generally makes decisions without
further consultation. The avenues
for and the degree of dialogue
between youth and their traditional
leaders can vary from village to
village and can, where protocol is
strict, cause discontent among
youth. Youth views can also reach
the fono a matai via a parent or any
other matai who may sit on the
Section 1.2, on youth and the faa-
Samoa, gives further information on
youth in the village structure.

Some Recommendations Concerning Youth Participation Voiced by Youth at the
National Youth Policy Workshops:
* Promote a greater recognition of the rights of youth within village systems and in Government.
Recognize and strengthen the voice of youth in governing organisations: parliament, village councils,
religious organisations.
* Promote the bestowing of chiefly titles on youth in order that their views may be formally expressed at the
level of the village council.
Produce radio and television talk shows for youth.
- Give youth (21 years and older) the power to elect the Member of Parliament to represent them (i.e. the
Minister of Youth).
* Foster the participation of male youth in village organisations in order that they may contribute to village
programs and activities.
* Strengthen the value attached by the different religious organisations to the views of youth.
Young people should be encouraged by their parents to participate in youth groups such as the autalavou,
Girl Guides, Boys Brigade, and the Girls Brigade.
- Foster greater understanding among parents of the importance of recognizing what their young have to
offer for the benefit of the family. In like manner, the young must understand not only their rights to
express their views but also how to do this in a respectful manner.
Hold village meetings that include all the different village organisations, at which opportunity is given to
the youth to express their views and give their recommendations.
* Foster the establishment of village development organisations to promote vegetable gardening, plantations
and the like.
* Enforce the participation of young people in the villages in Bible study classes, Sunday school classes and
all Church development programs.
Conduct leadership training courses for youth.
Give equal opportunities to male and female youth for employment and education.
* Include youth on Government committees and boards.
Encourage the association of parents in churches and villages in which they work together to raise funds
for school fees and consult on the difficulties that arise from time to time with their children and the
Parents valuing the views of the young are open to recommendations. This should also be the case with
the churches, the village and any organisation.
* Set aside one day in each month, to be called "Maea Tasi" (one rope), in which the traditional leaders
meet with youth and vulnerable groups to consult on problems and needs and, in particular, development
programs for youth in the villages.
* Promote the importance of young matai in village councils by giving them the opportunity to be appointed
village mayor. A younger leader may likewise be appointed as the Member of Cabinet representing the
interests of youth.
Produce a youth
newsletter to publicize
programs, festivals,
and sports activities,
while also conveying
recommendations to
help youth with their
Encourage elders to
consult with their
children and invite
their participation in
family meetings.
National Youth Forum 31 January -
3 February 1999

Youth and gender explores the principle of
the equality of the sexes and the implications
this has for the definition of the roles of
young women and men. Gender analysis
considers all aspects of human relations- in
domestic, economic and community life.
Traditional habits and practices, stereotyped
roles, and imbalanced patterns of decision-
making can hinder the development of both
male and female youth and impede the
overall social and economic advancement
of the nation.
The National Youth Policy promotes equal
rights and opportunities for all young
women and men in accordance with the United Nations Human Rights Declarations. It calls particularly for
women to be respected and valued as equal and able partners. For Samoa to enjoy sustainable and peaceful social
and economic development, it must recognize that fundamental rights and freedoms for both men and women
must be promoted and protected. As presented in policy development workshops, the question of gender equality
is like the wings of a bird in which one wing is woman and the other is man. Unless both wings are strong and
well-developed, the bird will not be able to fly.
Three documents are referred to in this section:
1. "A Situation Analysis of Children and Women in Western Samoa7' (1996), gives a socioeconomic
profile of children and women in Samoa.
1 4
2. "A Report on the Status of Women in Samoa 1992-1997" is an initial report on the Convention
on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).
3. "The National Policy for Women 2000-2004" (September 1999).
The Ministry of Women's Affairs is the focal point for the issues relating to the Convention on the Rights of the
Child (CRC).
Gender in a Changing International Context
A growing international awareness of gender issues has brought attitudinal
and lifestyle change to women in Samoa. Samoa was the first Pacific
developing island country to ratify CEDAW at the end
of the UN Decade for Women. Most Samoans are yet
to be aware of this important global instrument for the
promotion and protection of women's rights. Measures
are nevertheless being developed to bring about
implementation of CEDAW in society.
Economic, political, and social change in Samoa has
also changed the roles of women in society. Today
women make up a significant part of the labour force
although this is often not so much a matter of choice a&
a matter of economic necessity.
Change, by its very nature, demands a constant redefinipon of gender roles and this introduces an element of
stress to gender relations. It is how we manage this change and accommodate it in our every day lives that
determine how successfully we will evolve into a gender-balanced society.
The government's recognition of the importance of women in Samoan society and to family, community and
national development, led to the establishment of the Ministry of Women's Affairs in 1990. It is worth noting
however that the Minister of Women's Affairs has always been a man.

Female Heads of Households
The 1999 Demographic and Health Survey found 15% of all households to be headed by women most of whom
were either never married, widowed or divorced. In connection with households headed by women, the 1997
Household Income and Expenditure Survey found these households were less likely to be in food poverty than
those headed by men.
tly fewer females were enrolled in Years 8 and 9 in 1999,
Years j t i . 1 2 and 13 recorded more females with the greatest
differentce, 20% more, in Year 12. (Table 1.6-2). The 1999
Demographic and Health Survey found girls to have attained higher
levels of education than boys (Table 1.6-3). The DHS found 14.9%
of males and 13.9% of females to have undertaken post-secondary
training (Table 1.6-4). Analysed together this data indicates that
females achieve a higher level of formal education than males. This
trend is continuing with 118 females and 93 males enrolled in the
2000 University Prepatory Year programme at the National
University of Samoa. In all other courses, a total of A85 males
enrolled in Semester One 2000 compared to 646 females (almost
one-third more). While there are still disproportionately high numbers
of females entering the teaching and nursing schools, (over double
the number of males) more females than males enrolled the first
semester in commerce, computer studies
and accounting.
Female Matai
Becoming a matai does not; for most aiga, depend on gender but with many more male
matai than female matai (roughly in the ratio of 9:1, Figure 1.6-1) the weight of numbers
makes this a difficult aspect to change. Of the 2,966 titles bestowed between 1991 and
1994, 10% were to women. As discussed earlier, men and women at the village level
have well defined, socially constructed roles that are designed to complement each
other. While women can become matai, the fact that an overwhelming majority of
Samoa's traditional leaders are, and have always been, men, means that traditional
decision-making can be deprived of the views and meaningful contributions of women.
Women and Politics
That matai are predominantly male has implications with national elections and
"!JUre ' :
Given to Females & Males
governance. Up until 1992, only registered matai were eligible to vote. Although there
11 991 -1 9945
is now universal suffrage for 21 years and over, it is still the case that only matai may
stand for election. The only exception are the two non-matai who are sitting members of Parliment elected by
individual voters. As matai are predominantly male, this obviously leads to many more men being involved in
national politics and governance than women.
Economic Activity
The 1991 Census listed a total 57,142 economically active population, about 60% of the population aged 15
years and over. A total of 18,303 (32%) of these were female while 38,839 (68%) were males. Table 1.6-1 shows
the labour participation rate for youth by age group and sex. While almost all males were economically active
once leaving school, just over half of the females were in the labour force.
The 1999 Demographic and Health Survey found around 52% of
Table 1 .&'I. Labour Particzpiltton by Age
those 15 years and over to be economically active, either employed
and Gender
or working in farming and fishing- 23% of females and 75% of all
males. While the overall labour force partici~~ation
rate appears to
% in Labour Force
have decreased, the proportion of economically active males has
risen but that for females has dropped markedly. The percentage
of employed men who worked primarily to earn money has increased
15- 19
slightly over the period from the 1991 Census (32%) to the 1999
DHS (33%) but for women, the percentage has dropped from 36%
in 1991 to 21%. Female involvement in subsistence agriculture has
reduced dramatically. Whereas the 1991 Census found 64% of the

F,a-x:-5~ I-; r,~j[+C
:A(" r;p,ii;.,i;i:
T ~ ~ , I ; S . P ' ~
r' C
~ . { 4 $ , ~ 3 ~
5 h i ; j ~ ; ~ ~
\\fy7:i714~ ";r;:
1- Fgr"il,y 230: ;y: 1~

employed females to be agricultural and fisheries workers, the Demographic and Health Survey found only 1.6%
to be involved in this occupation group. The data does not indicate where young women are moving to in terms
of employment and occupation but both paid employment and agricultural work by females have declined. It may
be that young women simply have fewer employment and occupation opportunities in all sectors than they did a
decade ago, i.e., more are being classified as not economically active.
Among those classified as not economically active, the percentage of females found to be occupied with domestic
duties has increased from 53% in the 1991 Census to 83% in the 1999 DHS. Clearly more investigation is needed
to identify the current trends, in women's economical activities in Samoa.
The proportion of males that are self-employed is much higher than for females. The 1991 Census found only
14% of the self-employed to be females. There has been an increasing involvement of women in small businesses
and, in 1991, the Women in Business Foundation was established to improve women's business skills and to look
at ways by which women could have easy access to credit for setting up businesses. The Development Bank of
Samoa has noted a growing number of women applying for loans at both the cottage industry and medium levels.
In the experience of financial institutions in Samoa, women's groups, have a better repayment record on all forms
of loans than men's groups.
Youth in Public Service
Public Service Commission records for February 2000 reveal 978 people under the age of 30 working in various
capacities in government. Of these, 614 (63%) are female and 364 (37%) are male. The overall earnings disparity
between the sexes is significant as shown in Figure 1.6-2. The median annual wage for government employees
under 30 years of age is $6,668 for females and $7,395 for males (i.e. 50% of workers had an income above these
median values and 50% had an income below it). While the difference in average annual earnings is not great for
those under 30 years ($7,224 for females Figure 6.6-2: Salary Ranges for Government Employees by Gender,
and $7,609 for males), the gap widens February 2000
significantly for those over 30 years
($10,179 for females and $18,305 for
Table 1.6-5 also shows that the highest
I3 Male
male salary among those under 30 years
13 Female
of age is 1.4 times the highest female
salary in the same age group. The lower
average wages for females is partly
explained by the great number of females
involved in teaching and nursing,
professions with low average wages
($3,958 and $4,879 per annum
respectively on PSC data for February
2000). This data does not reflect the fact
that women tend to have a higher level of educational attainment as mentioned earlier.
NPF Data
Data from the National Provident Fund show the average female wage for all industries to have been consistently
lower than the average male wage (Figure 1.6-3). For 1999, the average female wage was 75% of the average
male wage.
1.6-3: Average Male and Female Wages (all industries) Recorded at NPF
Quarterly from September 1994 to September 1999
* Total
- Males
- Females

Youth Traveling Overseas
An analysis of monthly departures of Samoan citizens in 1998 reveals
Figure 1.6-4: Pafiicipation by Gender ar
interesting data on gender and travel. While slightly more females
National Youth Policy Workshops held
(243) left Samoa during the year in the 10-19 year age bracket, this
July - November 1998
position reversed in the 20-29 year age group with 1,561 more
males recorded as having travelled overseas. For all ages and by
purpose of travel; around twice as many males travelled overseas
for business and new employment. Travel for educational purposes
showed a lesser male bias with 828 males departing as compared
with 637 females. (Source: Statistics and Immigration Department).
Gender Representation in National Youth Policy Workshops
Of the 443 participants who attended the 12 policy discussion
workshops held from July -
November 1998; 160 (36%) were females. (Figure 1.6-4) This representation emerged
despite efforts to promote and ensure that stakeholders maintained a gender balanced representation.
Village Mayors
The establishment of village mayors in each village is under the Pulenuu Act administered by the Internal Affairs
Section of the Prime Minister's Department. Pulenuu are selected for a three-year term based on the consensus
of each village council of matai. As with parliament, only those holding matai titles are eligible to become a
village mayor. Of the total 224pulenuu in the country in 1993, only one was a woman. Previous years reveal that
a total of three women have been selected to this position from three different villages. There is currently one
female pulenu~l.
Women in Executive Positions in Government
Of the 49 currently elected Members of Parliament, only three are women, one of whom is Minister of Education,
the first woman minister. Women's participation in parliament is restricted by the fact that only matai are eligible
to be members and, as discussed above, this is heavily biased towards men. In fact women's direct participation
in national decision-making is relatively new. The introduction of universal suffrage in 1990 allowed non-titled
women to vote (with the excption of the individual voters.)
Whereas prior to ratification of CEDAW, there were only three female heads of departments, there are currently
six. Women make up some 40% of the department deputies and assistant directors.
Young Women in Sports
Young women, like their
male counterparts, are very
athletic, enjoy sporting
activities and, for a small
population, do remarkably
well in international
involvement in sports tends
to be less than that enjoyed
by men. Despite the
growing participation of
women in sports in recent
years, representation of
women in decision making
and leadership roles in
sports adminstration has
not followed. This needs
reconsideration, for equal
sporting opportunities to be
Some of the Members d
the Women's ?-Aside Rugby Squad
Februarv 2000
national sport, rugby, is
followed in popularity by netball. Both sexes now play in these traditionally segregated sports. Other sports
available for youth in Samoa are Samoan cricket, soccer, tennis, weight lifting etc.
, :-L-$ ~ A < : ( ~ A
F,&5j&E ,'4<>-'JF kiL2iz#~,
9 :
: (
1 * p


HIES Analysis ofPoverty in Samoa
Figure 1.7-2: !ncorne Breakdown by Region
The total household income by source (received by persons 15
HIES 1997
years and over) recorded in the HIES for Samoa in 1997 is shown
in Figure 1.7-1 on prior page. While paid employment is the biggest
source of income, it is interesting to note that remittances from
abroad (in kind and cash), is the second highest source.
Savaii received the largest share of remittances from abroad. It
also recorded the lowest household income from paid employment.
These factors can lead to dependence on remittances rather than
developing the resources around them for earnings. This untapped
potential can help rural people to enjoy much higher standards of
living than depending on remittances.
Aithough Apia and Northwest Upolu recorded the smallest
Figure 1.7-3: Breakdown of Mouseholds with
population (21% and 25% respectively) these regions earned the
the Lowest 20% oof Total Daily Expendjiures
most income in the country (35% and 31% respectively) as shown
by Region, WES 1997
in Figure 1.7-2. The contrast in earnings for Savaii and Apia is all
the more striking when the land area of the regions is considered.
Relative Poverty
The HIES analysis of relative poverty examines more closely the
characteristics of the lowest 20% of daily household expenditures.
Figure 1.7-3 shows the results by region. Savaii and the Rest of
Upolu have the highest proportion of households with the lowest
total daily expenditures.
Food Poverty
The HIES study found that 48% of the nation's households did
not meet the recommended minimum dietary requirements. The
study concluded that "subsistence afj7uencen in Samoa is declining
and that households in rural areas are more at risk to poverty than those in the Apia urban area. The highest
proportion of households in food poverty was found to be in Savaii.
Basic Needs Poverty
Adams and Sio, in their 1997 study on malnutrition in Samoa, suggest that absolute poverty, or the inability to
meet one's basic needs (as is found in other developing countries), is not prevalent in Samoa. They found that
cash income on its own is not a sufficient indicator of disadvantage as there are many transactions between
families, families' access to land for farming, the sea for fishing, and cash remittances from overseas relatives,
that occur outside the formal money economy.
The HIES nevertheless found 32% of households did not have sufficient total daily income to meet their estimated
basic needs requirements. This analysis again reveals rural Samoa, particularly Savaii, as having the highest
number and proportion of households in
All three types of poverty analysis undertaken
in the HIES point to Savaii as the region of
most concern in Samoa, followed by the Rest
of Upolu, Northwest Upolu and Apia Urban
The HIES report concludes that poverty is of
concern to all regions, with levels of daily food
expenditure in particular at lower levels than
expected. While correcting for weaknesses in
methodology may serve to lower the overall
number of households in poverty, the regional
pattern as outlined above is likely to remain
the same as the shortcomings in data collection
Husking coconuts in the plantation- both young women and men work
applied generally and not lo any one region.
in agr~culture
although statist~cal
data suggests that the role of women

Agriculture and Poverty
Various studies of the Samoan economy,
including the HIES report, show that
subsistence agriculture has declined.
The agricultural census undertaken in
1989 estimated a significant 50.3% of
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as
having originated in the agriculture
sector (including fishing and forestry).
Agriculture, and the subsistence sector
within it, has declined markedly since
then. Subsistence contributed 16.8% of
GDP in 1998 and 16.3% in 1999.
Despite this decline, agriculture
continues to be a very important
component of the village economy
where most youth live. The prominent
role played by youth, particularly male
youth, in subsistence agriculture has
already been mentioned in Youth
Demography. A second agricultural
census in 1999 confirms the continuing importance of agriculture as shown in Figure 1.7-4. Note that agricultural
activity mainly for home consumption is highest in Savaii.
Figure 1.7-5, shows the highest level of agricultural activity in Samoa is for "mainly home consumption7' (38%).
Both figures 1.7-4 and 1.7-5 suggest there may well have been an undervaluation of subsistence agriculture in the
HIES, particularly in Savaii where the occurrence of food poverty was thought to be highest.
A revitalized village economy, the mainstay of which is agriculture, is one of eight key strategic outcomes of the
Statement of Economic Strategy 2000-2001. Invigorating agricultural activity will greatly reduce the incidence
of food poverty.
"Capacity Building for Future Farmers", a multi-sector project aiming to address this very issue will be looking
to work closely with youth. The project, if approved, will involve the Ministry Of Youth Sport and Culture and
the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries and Meteorology.
Household Size and Poverty
It appears from statistical reports that while Samoa's population is growing, albeit slightly, the number of households
is decreasing thereby increasing the average household size. In much of the Pacific and in the "developed"
countries, household size been decreased in the last century.
Figure 7 .T-5: Levei of Agr~cultlare
Actwily by Region, Agriculture Census 1999
(Proiimrnary Report)

Every youth is entitled to enjoy a full productive life regardless of his or her nationality, aigalfamily, culture or
religion. They must have access to adequate shelter, food, clean drinking water and education. They must be free
from all forms of discrimination and exploitation. Youth who are deprived of such freedoms or whose access to
this basic human need is restricted
or perceived to be restricted by some
, 1 &3 ~:

situation or action of others, are
classified as vulnerable youth. Figure
Of Lie
g &
1.8-1 below depicts the various
elements affecting one's quality of
life and which, when lacking, lead
to vulnerability.
Vulnerable youth are exposed to
some form of danger or risk which,
if not addressed, is harmful. The
following groups are identified as
vulnerable youth in Samoa but given
the ever changing nature of society,
(lifelong educatzonj
(socio-cultural aspects)
(economic aspects)
the situation facing these groups
should be closely monitored and periodically assessed. By examining these groups, there is a danger of focusing
on the end results and not fully addressing the underlying causes. The Policy also recognises that these various
groups are not mutually exclusive. A youth may fall under several categories and face even greater risks. There
has been some research on suicide in Samoa.
Suicide is intentional, self-inflicted death and it has been found that those who attempt or complete suicide
usually suffer from emotional pain and distress, feeling unable to cope with their problems. Suicide ranks as a
leading cause of death worldwide. According to World Health Organisation (WHO), the Pacific, in 1994, had
the highest youth suicide rate in the world. In many countries, suicidal people are likely to suffer from mental
illness, particularly severe depression. In Samoa, various factors combine to paint a unique yet equally horrifying
statement against life.
The high number of suicides in Samoa has been a concern for many years (Figure 1.8-2). In the late 1970s and
early 1980s, close to 100 people attempted suicide each year (records range from 80 to 90 but these are unlikely
to be all attempts). A suicide awareness campaign launched in 1981 helped lower the rate of attempts but the
numbers, on the rise again, has recently attracted media and community attention. In February 2000, a suicide
prevention group "Faataua le Ola" was established.
From 1983 to 1999, the average yearly number of suicide
attempts was 37 with a death rate of 57% or around 21
deaths. There have been 13 attempts at suicide recorded
at the Tupua Tamasese Meaole Hospital (TTMH) for
2000 up to the end of April.
Youth Suicide
The majority of suicide attempts are made by young
people as revealed from an analysis of medical records
at the Tupua Tamasese Meaole Hospital. This analysis
examines data for the 10 year period from 1990 to 1999
(Figure 1.8-3 and 1.8-4). 68% of all suicide attempts in
this period was by youth (138 or 40% by male youth
and sexaal crimes such
and 98 or 28% by female youth). Over this period, there
as incest
were 18 cases of attempted suicide by youth 15 years of

age and younger, the youngest being two children of 11 years old each. Seven of the 13 suicide attempts to the
end of April 2000 (54%), almost one every two weeks, were by youth between the ages of 16 and 27 years (4 of
whom died).
Of all the methods used by suicidal youth over the period from 1988 to 1999, paraquat ingestion is the most
common at 67% of all attempts accounting for 66% of all suicide deaths (Table 1.8-2 and Figure 1.8-5). Of the
three leading causes of death however, hanging and gunshot wounds are more lethal methods than paraquat.
Just under 60% of the youth interviewed in the 1994 Apia Urban Youth Survey identified suicide as the most
serious problem they face today. The highest number of respondents identifying suicide were in the 15-19 year
age bracket. It should be noted that, as grim as this picture is, the figures are not complete. Not all cases of
attempted or completed suicides reach the national hospital, or for that matter, any hospital. Suicide data kept at
the Police Department and those reported by the Statistics Department differ slightly from those maintained at
the hospital and used in this analysis. It is imperative that accurate records be maintained and periodically
crosschecked with others who also keep suicide data including non-government organisations. While the more
serious suicide cases are likely to be transferred to the national hospital, the fact that not all cases are, requires
records to be maintained in all health centres in the country and at the Malietoa Tanumafili I1 hospital on Savaii.
To determine where youth who attempt suicides are from, data for the period 1988 to the end of April 2000 was
analysed. A total of 427 suicides were attempted over this period, 301 (70%) of whom were youth (176 or 58%
were male and 125 or 42% were female). A total of 123 different villages were given as addresses for these 301
Figure 1.13-2: Suicides ARempietl and Completed. 1979-.I
youth suicides. 119 of the addresses given are on Upolu (of the
1.8-3 Sulclde Attemps by Age
Group and SEX 3990-3999
remaining four, 3 were from Savaii and 1 was from Manono-hi).
All Others
Ii is not known however if the place of origin was given as the
address or place where living at the time of the suicide.
Table 1.8-3 lists the villages with five or more youth suicides over
the period from 1988 to the end of April 2000. All 16 villages are
on Upolu with the leading five coming from Northwest Upolu
Figure i .&-4. Youth and Al Other Suicide Attempts f 990-1 899
45 j

Figure ? .8-5 'r'outh (3 2-29 years)
where there are high numbers of migrants from Savaii.
Suicide Deaths bv Method: 1988-1 999
Dr. John Bowles, a consultant Psychiatrist with the
National Hospital from 1981-1983, noted that Samoans
living abroad do not have as high a rate of suicide as
those living in Samoa. He also found a connection
between suicide and alcohol abuse, violence in families,
differing expectations between generations and a lack of
communication between parents and children. The 1994
Apia Urban Youth Survey found that among youth not
in full time education or employment, a significant 42%
saw improving their relationship with parents as the best
way to improving their social life (almost twice as many
females [964] than males [508]).
There is urgent need for further research into this
problem. An informed dialogue among youth and their elders of the underlying causes is required. Further, the
urgent need for counselling services is generally accepted by those involved with this issue. It is possible to refer
the question of youth suicide to the National University of Samoa who may direct staff and student research in
degree courses such as sociology and counselling.
Delinquent Youth and Incarcerated Youth
The term juvenile delinquency refers to criminal or antisocial behaviour of young people -
acts which, if committed
by adults, would be considered crimes. The law defines a minor to be any person under the age of 21 years.
Section 2 of the Infants Ordinance 1961 defines "child" as under 16 years. As stated earlier, children aged 8-14
years can be held criminally responsible and charged. Of the 406 people sentenced to prison over the period from
1995 to 1998, just under 60% were by people under the age of 29 years - 229 or 57% were male youth and 10
or 2% were female youth (Figure 1.8-6). The vulnerable group of delinquent and incarcerated youth refer specifically
to those offenders under the age of 21 years, i.e., minors.
Among those under 21 years sentenced to prison over the period from 1995 to 1998,54% were for theft-related
crimes (Table 1.8-4). While it is encouraging to note the downward trend in thefts by young persons over this
period, this data only shows those who have been sentenced to prison, a sanction the judiciary are reluctant to
administer given their knowledge of the conditions at Tafaigata and Vaiaata.
When examined the data for those under 21 placed under probation (Figure 1.8-8), shows that all manner of
crimes committed by youth are actually increasing. The only crimes committed by young women for which they
were placed under probation in the period 1995-1998 were theft-related.
For young men, theft-related crimes have steadily increased over the period. Figure 1.8-9 shows the breakdown
of youth placed under probation over the period from 1995-1998. For other crimes, increases were recorded in
sex-related offences (carnal knowledge), wilful damage (throwing stones), drugs, and assaults.
Average Ages of Young Offenders
The average age of those under 21 years sentenced to prison over the period analysed was 18.9 years, while the average
age at which these youth left school was 14.7 years. Among probationers under 21 years of age, the average age was
Figure 1 .%-6:
Offenders Sentenced to Prison by
Figure 1.8-7: Persons Under 21 years Sentenced to
Age and Sex: 1 995-7 998
Prison 1995-2 998, by Type of Offence
F d e

17.7 years and the average age at which they left
school was 14.8 years (Figures 1.8-10 and 1,8-11)
Figure '1.8-8: Persons Under 21 Years Placed Under Probatitlon
1995-1 998, bac Theft and AN Other Crimes
Crime and Gender
It should be noted that for all age
related crimes were committed
females under probation, the
committed was theft.
Crime Prevention
This data gives some indications
activity of delinquent youth. A cr
policy is currently being developed
Department as a part of its corpora
F ~ g u ~
1 e
D-9 Persons Under 21 Years Placed Under
Moral considerations aside, the main issue of concern in
Probatran 1995- 1598, by Offence and Gender
the justice system exposing young offenders to various
risks, is the fact that there has never been separate
treatment for young people in the courts system.
Moreover, for those whose crimes warrant imprisonment,
A11 other
there is no separate correctional facility for young people
who end up in the company of seasoned criminals. In the
present system, it would be extremely diEcult for a young
person to break out of the cycle of crime once he or she
has entered it.
In countries with a juvenile justice system, young
offenders are usually considered to be in need of special
treatment, rehabilitation or discipline. Counselling
agencies are established to assist with crime prevention
and the process of social integration. A special study was
undertaken in Samoa in 1997 to investigate the establishment of a rehabilitation centre for young offenders. It
was noted in that study that the unsuitable conditions at Tafaigata for young offenders has long been recognised. --
Recommendations for both a
Figure 1.8- Y 0: Average Ages of Youth binder 21 Years Sentenced lo Prison
separate legal process to deal with
and Average Ages at Which They Left School (3 995-98)
iuvenile cases and a s e ~ a r a t e
correctional facility for young
- a.
offenders were made as far back as
April 1974 in a letter written by the
then Chief Justice G J Donne to the
Minister of Justice. This, basically,
was what the 1997 committee
recommended to Cabinet but it is not
known what, if any, action may have
been taken since then.
Youth Involved in Substance Abuse
Figure 1.8-I 1. Average Ages of Youth under 21 years Placed Under
In the 1994, drug and alcohol abuse
Probation Ei Average Ages at Which They Left School (1995-98)
was ranked by 35% of respondents as
the second most serious health prob-
lem (after suicide) facing youth today
(Apia Urban Youth Survey, 1994).
The problem is of growing concern in
Samoa and the obvious risks associ-
ated with such behaviour demand the
attention of policy-makers. The sub-
stances most abused by youth in Sa-
moa include: alcohol (mainly Vailima
beer and home brew),tobacco,

(Angel's Trumpet), and pzdou aitu ("magic" mush-
room). Research overseas has shown a correlation
between substance abuse and other health concerns
such as suicide, accidents (road crashes, fall injuries,
drowning), offences (violence in families, assaults,
theft, sexual abuse, wilful damage), and "lifestyle" dis-
eases (such as obesity and stroke). The cancer caus-
ing risks associated with smoking are also well known.
While the physical consequences of substance abuse
are measurable, the social consequences are often over-
looked or minimized. Limited family finances squan-
dered unwisely can result in unpaid bills such as school
fees and electricity further impinging on the wellbeing
of the family. The tensions within a family are com-
pounded when youth see substance abuse as a way of
escaping, albeit temporarily, stressful or painful expe-
riences. Other factors motivating youth to try drugs The Department of Health runs antr-smoking campaigns
and alcohol include curiosity and a real or perceived involvina school children. Pictured above are some of the
pleasure to be derived from the substance.
winners for the Worid No Tobacco Day competition prize-giving,
Alcohol. Smoking and Mariiuana
3'1 May 20100. Standing right and lefi are the Director General
of Health Taulealeausumai Dr. Eti Enosa and Namulauulu Dr.
There is
'pecific policy On
it is Nuualofa Potoi, the Assistant Director. It is interesting to note
dealt with briefly in the draft policy On
and that six ofthe eiaht orize-winners were airis. Statistics show a
nutrition. Control of the liquor industry is through greater 1ikelrhoo;d t o boys to take up &&Eng.
the Liquor Control Board operating under the authority
of the Liquor Act of 1971. In addition, alcohol-related problems are addressed in various ways by some government
departments, viz., Health, Police, and MYSCA and by non-government organisations such as Sautiamai, Alcoholics
Anonymous, and other church organisations. Another factor reducing alcohol consumption stems from the social
controls established by the village council of matai who often impose restrictions on alcohol.
Vailima beer and cheap imported spirits are widely available throughout the nation being sold in village stores
and licensed premises. Although it is an offence for a person under 21 years to possess or consume alcohol, it is
common for shopkeepers to sell beer to children and youth who usually say they are buying for their fathers and
uncles. This practice is unacceptable and mechanisms should be introduced to ensure that the law is enforced.
1 8-12 Pecentage of Youth (10-29 years) Who had Tned Smoking, Aicohol or Spirts 8: Senior police officers
Mat riuana, by Sex &Whether Fulltme Employed, Fuiltrrne Student or Neither
advise that alcohol i s
25% 1
I3 Tried Smokmg
heavily implicated in most
13 Tried Alcohol or Spirits
serious criminal offences
and in many minor offences
Cl Tried Marijuana
although data on this is
lacking. Data on the illicit
manufacture of home brew
and the geographic and
demographic distribution
of consumption is also not
F i g ~ ~ r
The main drug youth are involved in is marijuana.
Pecentage of Fulllime Students (10-14 years) Who had Tried
Marijuana is known to be grown all over the Samoa
Smoking, Alcohol or Spirits & Marijuana, by Sex
islands and is believed to be widely used by youth. As
analysed from the 1994 AUYS data, the main group
n Tried Alcohol or a
Tried Smoking
1994 AUVS
who seem to be attracted to its use are full-time
students. Drug abuse among youth in American Samoa
has been of growing concern to the government there
in recent years. With tightened border controls in
recent years, a number of attempts to smuggle
marijuana, originating from Samoa, have been
intercepted by American Samoa authorities. The flow

of drugs between the two Samoas is not one-way. In
qrcences of substance
1999 a shipment of cocaine from American Samoa
was intercepted by Customs officers in Samoa. Hard
are sjten overlooked or minimised.
drum in Samoa would have to come in from
, "
overseas. It is understood that the Customs department are looking into the idea of establishing a canine drug
detection unit at entry points. Any initiative aimed at tightening up drug surveillance is strongly supported by this
The 1994 Apia Urban Youth Survey asked youth whether or not they had tried smoking, drunk beer or spirits, or
tried marijuana. Figure 1.8-12 shows the results for the 10-29 age group as a percentage of the total respondents
in the three broad categories of full-time employed, full-time student and neither (and by gender).
For those under 20 years of age, the results show that a small percentage of youth are trying smoking and beer or
Figure 1 .$-I 4: Pecentage of Youth (1 0-19 years) Who had Tried Smakng, Alcohol or Spirits
and Marijuana, by Occupation and Sex
el Tried Smoking
Tried Alcohol or Spirits
spirits in the 10-14 year age group (Figure 1.8-13). With a projected 10-14 year population for 2000 of around
10,000 males and 10,000 females, these percentages extrapolate nationally to some 500 male students and 300
female students trying smoking and some 400 male students and 100 female students trying beer or spirits. While
these may be conservative estimates, it should be noted that most of these students would have been in primary
school. In this regard, the importance of the attitudes and behaviours
of parents and older siblings and the influence of the media cannot be
underestimated.Attitudes more than knowledge, influence the initiation
of behaviour and, once acquired, guide a person either to substance
abuse or to a drug-free life.
Table 1.8-15 shows the percentages of youth found in the 1994 AUYS
to have been involved in these risk behaviours. Almost a third of those intenriewed in the 10-19 year age bracket
had tried smoking, just under 1 in 4 had tried beer or spirits and just under 1 in 5 had tried marijuana. As can be
seen, the percentages increased dramatically in the older youth bracket.
Table 1.8-6 shows that among youth under 20 years of age, full-time students are the ones most trying smoking
(61% of those who had tried cigarette smoking), drinking (61% of those who had tried beer or spirits) and
marijuana (42% of those who had tried marijuana). Moreover, male students outnumbered all others in each of
the risk behaviours except for those who had tried marijuana who were neither full-time students nor full-time
To place these values in greater perspective, Figure 1.8-14 has been constructed to show those youth in the 10-
19 year age bracket involved in these risk behaviours as a percentage of all respondents in the various categories
(and by gender). Note the higher percentages of full-time students placing themselves at risk compared to the
other categories.
Pregnant Teenagers
As indicated earlier, teen pregnancy is emerging as a major health problem for young women with the increased
risk of stillbirths and other complications noted among those treated at the national hospital. In a study on
teenage pregnancy conducted in 1995 (Health Sector Strategic Plan 1998-2003), 81% of the survey sample did
not plan their pregnancy. Although 77% were aware that they were at risk of falling pregnant, 65% had very little
knowledge of contraception and 95% had never used it. Moreover, among the pregnant teenagers interviewed,
\\2 t E ;-fi"G
7 lj2?_rLAd;A 1"P;,L.Adr=!U (3 SjahGA
SAFb*jOA p$gTiCJb&s
Y O k i ^ ' ~
CraSi-iCs.". 2QO
1 - 2ij ! 0

55% had been sexually active for less than a year while
45% between one and four years.
This and other reports suggest an urgent need to provide
pre and post-natal care and education for young unmarried
mothers-to-be whose families, for various reasons, often
do not provide the kind of support needed by these young women and their unborn children. Adoptus, an NGO
involved, is breaking new ground in this area. With lives at stake, this issue must be reviewed and addressed. It is
generally accepted that there is a lack of preparation for adolescence and puberty, marriage and parenthood. This
is due mostly to the taboo placed on discussing sexual matters although the arrival of HIVIAIDS to Samoa is
helping to open up a community dialogue on the issues of sexual and reproductive health. While materials on
reproductive health have been produced by
the Department of Education, it is not clear
Ftgure 1 8-3 5.
Curnuiahve Schoo! Drop-outs Compared with Y8-Y9
how widespread it is being used in the
Nationai Enrolment (199549991
a 207000
- d l

School Dropouts, Out-of-School Youth
and Unemployed Youth
w 15,000 1
School dropouts are the number of students
enrolled in any given year who are not
enrolled during the following year.
National enrollment in the youth age
bracket, i.e., Year 8 to Year 13, has
remained fairly constant over the last five
years averaging at around 17,600 students
(Figure 1.8-15). Available data from the
Education Department do not indicate post-
secondary enrolment so it is not known h
is the last year of school, these figures are not included in dropout calculations.
Over the period from 1995-1999, school dropouts peaked at just over 4,000 in 1996. The number, while fluctuating,
has since declined to just under 3,000 in 1999. Nevertheless, there are still large numbers of students leaving
school before completing their secondary education. A cumulative 16,382 students have dropped out over the
five-year period from 1995-1999 as shown above. Table 1.8-7 shows this total number who dropped out by level.
Over a third stopped going to school at the end of Years 8 and 9, the first two years of secondary schooling, while
two-thirds left in the last two years.
This information is shown graphically in Figure 1.8-16. Whilst overall, more boys (52%) than girls (48%) dropped
out of school during the period; slightly more girls stopped school at the end of Year 12. Over the period Figure
1.8-17 shows that the average government transition rates for Year 8 to Year 9 for the 1995 -1999 period has
declined to 57% while the national average, boosted by mission and independent schools has remained fairly
Figure l.8 16: ToEai Schooi Drop-Outs
Figure 'f 23-1 7 :
Total School Drop-Outs
by level Tor 1995- 1999
by Level for 19954 999
SOURCE: P!;miring awi Unit, DOG /
Y I 2 t o Y13
loo T
E 95 4 -Year
8 - Ye!r 9 Transition Rate, Nationally (I,)
y11i0 Y12
90 4
Year8 - Year 9Tonsition Rate in Fovernmnt Sckooir (%)
2 Q < l
stable at around 80%.
Table 1.8-8 lists the districts with government schools that recorded the highest dropout rates of over 50%.
While the data from which these figures have been derived do not show pupil movements across country or into

mission and independent schools, they are nevertheless indicative of the
areas experiencing high numbers of student dropouts.
It is obvious that those who stop school at the end of Year 8 face many
disadvantages. These dropouts join the ranks of the many unemployed
youth already out of school. The likelihood of their finding paid jobs is
extremely low as employment policies, for obvious reasons, often restrict
early school leavers. The PSC, for example, has a policy of employing
only those students who have completed Year 11 (i.e. who have sat the
School Certificate exam). PSC applicants must also be a minimum of
eighteen years of age.
It is not known exactly what happens to early school leavers who, influenced
by relatives living abroad and the media, return home after searching in
vain for jobs and disillusioned about their future prospects. It is often these
youth who become attracted to alcohol and drugs and, with such limited
access to resources, resort to crime, mainly theft, to get what they want.
A study (Employment in Western Samoa - Present and Potential, 1989)
One of the concerns facing youth with concluded that the majority of school leavers were unlikely to proceed to
special needs is that they, like this further education and training or to secure paid employment. Agriculture
has traditionally absorbed school dropouts and out of school youth.
edclcation and training by being kept at Declining agriculture and a youth population increasingly disinterested in
home, isolated from peers and friends. working the land, is also adding to unemployment in Samoa.
They often also do not receive the kind
of rnedlcal treatment recjutred for thetr youth with Special Needs
Youth with disabilities in Samoa lead a difficult and, often, lonely life.
Although physically or mentally disabled youth can nevertheless live an enjoyable life and fulfil their potential
with the help of medical science, appropriate aids and equipment, education and training, and understanding and
support from the community. For complex sociocultural reasons and a general lack of facilities to support their
integration in society, disabled youth in Samoa often receive very limited education and training and tend to be
isolated from their peers and friends.
There is very little information available and limited research conducted
FigUre -&*
8: Percentage
in the field of disabilities. The lack of data for policy formulation begins
of Households, by Region, with
PhystcallyiMentally Dtsabled Persons
at birth. While individual records for deliveries at the national hospital
will reveal birth defects or babies born with congenital disorders, this
Apia Urban
data is not captured in the health information system unless the baby is
admitted for diagnosis and treatment. The tendency for disabled youth to
be kept at home further hides the extent of the problem.
The 1991 Population Census enumerated a total of 1,405 households
with disabled persons (Table 1.8-9). Estimates projected from research
conducted in the 1990s indicate around 600-800 youth (12-29 years)
with disabilities. It should be pointed out that some countries estimate
their disabled to be around 10% of the population. Applying the 6% of
households rate found in the 1991 Census to the estimated youth
population in Samoa for 1999 (12-29 years) yields around 3,600 youth,
five to six times greater than that estimated from research available to
kble 1 .$-I :MGO's Providing Special Needs Education in Samoa
Special Needs emphasis
Loto Taumafai
Physical disabilities
5-26 years
Fia Malamalama
Intellectually handicapped
4-25 years
Learning difficulties
5-10 years
All ages
Nl A
N/ A
Special Needs Education Society Inc.
Prevention, Rehabilitation and Education of the Blind Society (unable to obtain
data but it is understood that blind students are integrated into schoolslsociety).

Beginning to address this issue more
systematically, the Education Department,
in early 2000, launched a Special Needs
Education Survey project with UNDP
assistance. The project which is nearing
completion, surveys primary school students
to assess special needs students by location
and type of need. The project also aims to provide training for teacher trainees to be able to identify special needs
students and provide for an increasing demand for special education at the secondary level and beyond. As a part
of this initiative, two satellite schools have been selected to pilot special needs classrooms, the first step towards
special needs education in the Government education system. The Educational Amendment Act 1991 makes it
mandatory for government to share responsibility for special needs children by supplementing and supporting
community initiatives in special education.
Students at Loto Taumafa1 Sckooi for the Disabled. June 2000
Four non-government organisations currently provide for
special needs education in Samoa. Located in the Apia area,
these NGOs are listed in Table 1.8-1.
Excluding PREB who are understood to work with the blind
on a case by case basis, these organisations currently have a
combined student roll of just over 100 students. Loto Taumafai
and Fia Malamalama include woodcraft in their programme to
help students generate their own income. In following up on
their school leavers over the last five years, Loto Taumafai
discovered that 83% (5 out of six students) have found full-
time employment.
There are currently no special education services in rural areas
where the majority of people with disabilities live (71% as
shown in Figure 1.8-18). A pilot special needs classroom,
however, has recently been established at Ulimasao Junior
Secondary School in Vailoa, Palauli, the first such facility for
Savaii. A survey recently conducted by PREB Society in the
Palauli district identified some 26 young people with special
education needs. The classroom has been equipped under a
Young boy sell~ng
fans In Apa
F4fit\\'AL $$c" '
J r U t A a A ~~A\\.&,'~{"'u
:()i\\j,?il_ yO:l f!i
20Q; z:j$

grant from JICA who have also provided a van for student transportation. Technical expertise will be provided
collaboratively by PREB, Loto Taumafai and Fia Malamalama.
Working Children Including Urban Street Vendors
The Labour and Employment Act 1972, in line with the Minimum Age Convention 1973 (ILO), makes it unlawful
to employ any child under the age of fifteen except in safe and light work suited to his or her capacity. A paper on
Child Labour, prepared by the Commissioner of Labour and submitted to Cabinet in 1999, outlines three categories
of child labour in Samoa, viz., those under fifteen
years of age who are:
- Unpaid workers in family-run commercial or
semi-commercial businesses, the most
problematic sector involving "many" children
Unpaid subsistence farmers in the non-formal
sector where the problem is twofold:
youngsters doing heavy work not suited to their physical capacity or likely to be injurious to their health
and children under fourteen years of age working in the plantation instead of going to school, and
Paid workers in the formal sector of which there are no
cases known to the Labour Department
The Department of Labour is presently reviewing relevant
legislation including a proposal to ban the employment of children
during normal school hours and at night.
Semi-commercial enterprises are also culturally orientated in the
sense that a child may not be directly paid a wage but their service
is reciprocated in a variety of ways e.g provision of money, food,
educational support etc. It must be noted that family-run
commercial businesses and other ventures are also often the site
for promoting family unity, and entrepreneurial skills from an early
Street Vendors
Street vendors sell a range of products including food items,
agricultural produce, handcrafts, and imported items such as
batteries. While the work itself may be suited to their physical
capacity, and certainly the income they earn would help meet family
expenses including school fees; their work, as with children working
in subsistence agriculture, interferes with their education. Most of
the children who are selling on the streets certainly appear to be
under the age of fourteen years and to have dropped out of school
early. This can lead to other problems. The nature of the work can
expose these young people to risks. One of the worst examples
could be young girls and boys who start selling uia (leis) outside
nightclubs at night but end up selling their bodies. While there is
no data to support such a statement, the possibility of this happening
is one of the reasons why these youth have been identified as
vulnerable. They may also be exposed to violence and to drugs
and alcohol.
Those under fifteen years of age who are selling items legitimately
(after school) may also acquire habits and practices detrimental to
their moral character. Import items, and the products are many
and varied, may well be black market products (smuggled into the
country by parents or guardians as personal effects) with no duties
paid. This has obvious implications for legitimate trade, for
government, and also compromises ethical standards in these young
people that, if left unchecked, may lead to other, more serious
A 12 vear-old b o ~
sells cabbages durmg
school hours. Note the $2.34 million
lackpoi advefiised

With virtually no data available on this group, its inclusion here aims to open up investigation into the circumstances
facing these young people and the activities they are engaged in.
Youth Living in Dysfunctional Families Including those Experiencing
Domestic Violence and Sexual Crimes such as Incest
The aiga, the foundation of faa-Samoa, can also be a powerful agent for human destructiveness if domestic
violence or other manifestations of family dysfunction are present. Youth growing up in homes where they
witness or are routinely subjected to beatings, verbal abuse or sexual abuse (or a combination of these), are
traumatised by the experience. The social and economic costs are incalculable and can lead to a host of problems
as discussed throughout this section. Sadly, the cumulative affect of domestic violence and the violence which
too many youth are Figure 1 8-19 Percentage ofm/omen S u ~ e ~ d
Ftgure 1 8-20. Percentage of victims by age at whch
experiencing in schools a)ywheaer or notthey'vbexpertenced clornesf~c vfQlefl@ocmrted
seems all too often to be
35-44 years
disregarded under the K
vtctims of
has not been adequately assessed partly because it has not been adequately acknowledged as a problem- privately
or publicly. This denial is the first obstacle to be overcome if youth today are to break the cycle of violence and
not become abused or abusive adults. There are two nongovernment organisations with programmes addressing
violence in families. Mapusaga o Aiga (MOA), was formed in 1993 in response to a growing concern about the
occurrence of domestic and sexual violence in Samoa. In a 1996 study by Mapusaga o Aiga on domestic and
sexual violence against women, 73 out of 257 women interviewed (28%) said they had been victims of violence
(Figure 1.8-19). Of those who experienced violence, 51 (70%) were in the 15-24 year age group (Figure 1.8-20).
The National Council of Women has more recently launched "TeteeAtu leSasa ma UpuMamafa7', a programme
aimed at stopping child beating and the verbal abuse of children. This programme, targeted initially at mothers, is
looking also to reach teachers as young people can also be subjected to violence in schools.
Youth Victims of Sexual Crimes -Incest and Rape
As with other areas in criminology, only a small percentage of sexual crimes are reported, a smaller number get
as far as prosecution, and an even smaller number of convictions are actually made. Compounding this issue is
the fact that sex in Samoan society is a matter of tapu making sex-related crimes all the more difficult to deal
with. As with other forms of violence, there is also a common attitude that this matter should only be dealt with
by the aiga. While the criminal justice system work for urban Apia, crimes committed in the villages, unless they
are of a very serious nature, are usually dealt with by the matai council. Given that the topic of sex, let alone
scxual crimes, is tapu, these crimes may never make it to the matai council. If a case does appear before them,
they are ill-equipped to effectively deal with the problem especially when the perpetrator may be from among
their number. A young woman faced with the prospects of taking her case to the authorities in Apia requires
considerable courage and self-confidence. Seeking justice also carries the risk of causing isolation from the
family; with no other support currently available for
counselling and care, this risk is often too high and can
result in a victim's eventual denial in the courtroom.
There is an urgent need for ongoing research into this
problem to determine not only its scope but also the
issues needing to be taken into account for justice to
prevail. While there has been improvement in the
community's response to seminars on sex-related issues
such as HIVIAIDS and teen pregnancy, there is an
ongoing need to raise awareness of the problem and to
develop strategies to meaningfully address them. There
is also a need for counselling and support services for
the victims of sexual crimes (and their families) in order
to facilitate healing.

img net is gwatb a
only one sinnet co
any eontribrate to 2 s making.
A ~tnanimous
decision reyecling unify of pul-po,se.
The cstrlmorz / h e a d for Youth Servtce Providers are the youth themselves.
Youth Service Providers (YSP) are any organisations, formal and informal, that provide services of various kinds
for youth. Such services are designed to assist with the spiritual, emotional, physica!, intellectual, social, cultural
and economic development of youth or any combination of these as provided by many of the different organisations.
at the Youth Stakeholder's Workshop held 2-3 December 1999
Youth Service Providers in the Context ofthe Statement of Economic Strategy 2000-2001
The theme for the Statement of Economic Strategy (2000 - 2001), "partnership for a prosperous society",
emphasises the important developmental role played by all stakeholders. The broad areas of youth development
outlined above are not mutually exclusive. Neither is any one area of greater importance to any other (Figure
1.9-1). A holistic approach to youth development necessarily cuts across many sectors and, as such, requires the
support and cooperation of all those who have an interest in the advancement of youth in Samoa. The important
role played by religious organisations has already been discussed. In addition to these religious organisations,
there are many nongovernment organisations that, to varying degrees, allocate resources for the betterment of
The Youth Service Provider Network
The Youth Service Provider Network (Table 1.9-1) is not meant to be an exhaustive list but rather an attempt to
identify those recognised in the current landscape of youth development.While many of these organisations
already have strong links with others, with some the
1 9-1 : Thematic Areas of Youth Developrrlent
partnership needs strengthening. While some have been
consulted in policy development to date, others have not.
It may be necessary to split the stakeholders into two
groups: a main group may be comprised of those recognised
to have a high level of relevance to ongoing policy
development and monitoring while a second, wider group,
will be necessary for the policy to filter into grassroots
Non-governmental organisations also serve youth. Key
among these are the religious organisations and particularly
those that have Youth and Education Departments. Church
Education Departments provide formal schooling at mission

schools working in partnership with the Department of Education. Some focus on Early Childhood Education,
others on technical and technological skills. Church Youth Departments primarily provide religious education
and a variety of non-formal educational opportunities. Given that most Samoan youth are affiliated with a religious
organisation through the autalavou, they are seen as an important channel to reach large numbers of youth by the
Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture.
Other NGOs with programmes reaching youth usually fill a
perceived need. Some are structured with a Board of Directors
and paid or volunteer staff to execute their mission. Others are
loosely structured and are often limited in their effectiveness due
to inadequate manpower and other resources. The Samoa Umbrella
of Non-Government Organisation (SUNGO), with approximately
40 affiliated organisations, is increasingly being recognised as the
umbrella for NGOs in Samoa.
A recent survey conducted by the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture of NGOs, highlighted some common
interests among Youth Service Providers s (Table 1.9-1). Youth, according to the various organisations surveyed,
varied widely in age. The majority of these organisations do not set a particular age limit for participation. Some
include children as young as 5 years old in their youth activities. Others begin at 10 years, 12 years, 15 years and
upwards to 40 years and over.
Each Service Provider has a particular mission to follow and many provide programs to enhance skills and
empower the individual to become more self-sufficient and self-reliant. In doing so, they help to build self-
esteem, strong moral and spiritual character, and develop appreciation for the importance of youth in society.
Organisations vary widely in involving youth in decision-making from very little involvement to very high
involvement. While the organisational structure often determines how much say a youth has in the affairs of the
group, this is strongly influenced by leadership style.
MYSCA - A Possible Focal Point for Youth Development
At the present time, the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Cultural Affairs may be in the best position to tie the Youth
Service Provider network together. It has, in the course of developing this Policy, consulted with many of the
organisations identified above. As mentioned earlier, MYSCA has also developed a "Youth Directors" network
comprising representatives from various religious organisations. It has, for many years now, consulted successfully
with this group to plan such events as National Youth Week, and MYSCA workshops and seminars.

figure. 1.9-2 Youth Servree Providers
Police and Prisons

HEALTH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Alternative Sources of Youth Health Care; Current Dimensions in Health;
Healthy Islands; Fanau ma Aiga Manuia; Youth Health; Disease Patterns
by Gender; Health Services for Youth; Barriers to Health Information
Needs; Communicable Diseases
................................................................................. 4

Formal Education; National Examinations, Corporal Punishment; Equity of
Resource Allocation; Post Secondary Education; The University Preparation
Year; Studying Overseas; Participation Rates; Special Needs Education;
Non-formal Education
The Economically Active Population; Agriculture; Other income-generation;
The Formal Sector; NPF Data; MYSCA Surveys concerning Employment;
Unemployment and Underemployment
ISSUES. ..........................................................
Introduction; Correctional Facility for Youth; Youth Sentenced to Prison;
Persons placed under probation; Analysis of those Sentenced to Prison and
Persons Placed under Probation
USE. ......................................................................
Current Dimensions; Key Environment Organisations; Conservation Areas
and Reserves
6 7
Formal and Informal Youth Recreation, Sports. Regional and International
Games; Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture; Sports and Recreational
Facilities; Creative Arts
KEY RECREATION ...........................................................................................

The Samoa National Youth Policy envisions and advocates a healthy youth population as fundamental to its
mission. Youth represents a sub-population with distinct lifestage-related health risk factors, health priorities and
preventive health service needs. The policy recognizes that in order to achieve the fullest potential of health in
our nation's youth, integrated national policy and program strategies will need to be developed that clearly
identify, address and track youth as a distinct sub-population at risk. Long-term commitment and active collaboration
on the part of both the community and government need to expand in scope to include youth-specific health
priorities. Given the need for limited health resources to be used efficiently and effectively, youth health issues
can and should be addressed within current health prevention and intervention departments and programs.
AdolescentJyoung adult health priorities should join those identified in other at-risk sub-populations.
The first part of this section focuses on youth health status. What is known, and equally important, what is still
unknown about the risk factors of this sub-population. It also identifies some of the major health-related initiatives,
services and resources targeting youth.
Alternative Sources of Youth Health Care
There are two major health and healing paradigms available in
Figure 2 1-1 :
( Youth Seeking
Samoa: allopathic (science-based, "Western" medical approach),
Two blam
(Medical Treatment
Sources of
and traditional Samoan healing practices. Although frowned upon
Primary Health Care
during the Colonial era, traditional healing practitioners, including
birth attendants (faatosaga), herbalists (taulasea),
and massage specialists (fofo), are still commonly
1st Traditional Healer
Public and/or
referred to for treatment. Also not to be overlooked
are a small number of Christian faith healers who
Private Health
are approached exclusively or concurrently for
treatment. In addition, a Chinese Acupuncturist
Hospitals and
based at the National Hospital is another option
Health Centres
available under an agreement with the Chinese
2nd Traditional Healer 1
Government. Who youth turn to for medical help
varies considerably amongst individuals and presenting symploms.This is influenced
by family preferences, peers, accessibility, affordability, availability and prior
experience with practitioners. It is not uncommon for a sick youth to be under the
sequential or concurrent care of both traditional and allopathic health practitioners (Figure 2.1-1).
Current Dimensions in Health
Samoa's relatively sound overall health picture reflects the nationwide system of
primary health care that networks into every village though public rural health
facilities. The Public Health Sector consists of 33 government health care facilities
(Figure 2.1-2).
Medical staff per 20,000 people is shown in Figure 2.1-3.
There are some Private Health Care facilities as listed below, but these

District or Village
Women's Committees I
per 20;000 people
Figure 2.1 -3: Medical Staff per 25,000 People
F i g u r e 2.4 -2: Public Health Sec?or

are all located in or around Apia and generally charge fees that are beyond the reach of most people (up to thirty
times the fee charged at public health facilities).
The Public Health System focuses on preventative health that encourages Samoans to protect against infection
and injury, promote and maintain good health, and take more responsibility for their own health. The Health
Sector Strategic Plan 1998-2003 seeks to promote "sustainable partnerships" with all sectors in the community
to achieve health goals. Its guiding principles are; equity of access, quality of care, acceptability, affordability and
Health among Samoans has, in certain areas,
Motootua in
Apia, is the
improved over the past several decades. Infant mortality
is decreasing and life expectancy is increasing. Samoa
enjoys one of the highest immunization rates in the world with approximately 96.3% of the infant population fully
immunized. Most of the infectious diseases are under control. Despite these improvements, diseases such as
respiratory infections and gastroenteritis remain significant causes for inpatient morbidity and mortality. There
have been outbreaks of typhoid fever (1993) and dengue fever (1995) in recent years and there is a growing
prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as
Figure 2.1-4 Components of Healthy ?siands
circulatory diseases including rheumatic fever, diabetes
related illnesses, injuries and poisoning, and cancer.
Children are
Healthy Islands
At a 1995 Pacific Islands health conference on Yanuca
Island, Fiji in 1995, Health Ministers adopted the
Yanuca Island Declaration on Health in the Pacific
for thc 21st Czntury. IIealthy islands, according to
the Deciaration, should be places wherc children arc
Pcoplc work
nurtured i n body and mind; environments invite
and a g with
invite learning
learning and leisure; people work and age with dignity:
and leisure
and ccologicai balance is a source of pride.
Fanau ma Aiga Manuia (Child and Family Health Project)
In response to a 1997 study of Samoan school children which found a high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease,
malnutrition, scabies, impetigo, chronic ear infection and parasitic infection, the Department of Health has taken
deliberated steps to "strengthen its child health policy and program planning, delivery of primary care services,
and promotion and protection of child health and development7' (Director General of Health, 2000). This child
health strategic initiative, calledFanau maAigaManuia, targets those 0 to 18 years of age, and is currently being
finalised for Cabinet approval. The following priority programme areas are proposed under the project:
ChiLd development and parenting (including developmental screening, care and support of
handicapped children, early childhood education and child rearing practices)

Injury prevention and safe environmenl
" ' 8
- Rheumatic fever & rheumatic heart disease
Nutrition and exercise
Tobacco, drugs and alcohol
Reproductive health (including pregnancy, c e"ldbirth, sexual health and family

Integrated management of childhood illness
Meratal health
SOURCE: Fanau ma Aiga Manuia Sirategy
Oral health
(duly 2008 Draft)

It is encouraging that among the proposed strategic directions listed are health issues commonly associated with
youth (injury prevention, tobacco drugs and alcohol, reproductive health). This project addresses the first seven
youth years in the official youth age bracket and can therefore form an important first part of a broader Youth
Health policy that considers the many risk factors issues facing the official youth age range (12-29 years).
Youth Health
The leading cause of disease or ill health among youth arc injuries and poisoning associated with risk behaviour
including cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and suicide. Other significant causes of death include diseases
of the circulatory system, infectious diseases and cancer.
The leading causes of morbidity (disease) among youth are related to reproductive health, risk taking behaviour
and infectious diseases. Non-communicable diseases among youth have increased from an estimated 10% in
1978 to 15% in 1991. Possible contributing factors include poor dietary practices and sedentary lifestyles.
Disease Patterns by Gender
Suicide and ulcers of the stomach are predominant in males whilst diseases of the urinary tract predominate In
females. The majority of diabetes admissions are female. Of the 281 admissions to the Orthopaedic Ward in the
five months from January to May 2000,112 (40%) were youth. Almost three times more male youth than female
youth were admitted (Figure 2.1-5).
F w r e 2.1 -5: Admissions En the Orthorseadlc
It is not known how many of these patients sought treatment as a
Ward, January May 2000 by Gender
result of work or sporting injuries but these are believed by senior
nursing staff at the Orthopaedic Ward to cause the higher number of
Male Youth
male admissions.
Health Servicesfor Youth
Despite some barriers to youth health information needs (listed to the
right), youth do have access to a range of public and private health
services, two of which are targeted specifically to youth. Adolescent
Reproductive Health is financed by government and provided by the
Samoa Family Health Association. The Health Education and
Promotional Services (HEAPS) raises public awareness on a range of
priority health issues affecting youth such as alcohol consumption, c
sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Moreover, information on good nutrition is provided to youth groups and ---
schools. Health promotional activities
for youth have used the role modelling
approach involving Samoan celebrities
such as sporting figures Brian Lima,
Michael Jones, and David Tua, the late
Pat Mamaia, comedian Petelo, former
and current Miss Samoa and Miss
South Pacific. These celebrities convey
a range of health messages to youth.
Another approach strengthens health
partnerships between key government
departments such as the Ministry of
Youth, Sports and Cultural Affairs, the
Division of Environment and
Conservation; and NGOs such as
youth groups, YMCA, Red Cross,
Sautiamai, Samoa College Old Pupil's
Association, Avele Old Boys
Association, Marist Old Boys
Association and the Samoa Rugby
Football Union. Another innovative
health promotional medium for
reaching youth is through the youth
to youth or peer education approach
Thrs 13 year old bay at tno olfhogeadic ward was one of seven injured while using youth lo promote health
watching the Manu Samoa vs. Fy rugby game on 3 June 2000.
messages to other youth.

Communicable Diseases
Barriers to Health Information Needs
Communicable diseases are still a health
The following are some of the barriers that prevent youth
concern featuring in both the top five causes
from getting the health information they need:
for admission to hospital in Samoa and the top
Youth take good health for granted and sometimes do not
five causes for inpatient death (Table 2.1-1).
seek needed information from health care providers.
One third of the total cases (31) of tuberculosis
treated in 1997 were youth. Three were under
Vital youth health issues such as reproductive and sexual
19 years and seven were between the ages of
health are not properly addressed because they are
20-29. Of the 72 new leprosy cases in the 1990-
considered culturally and religiously sensitive. There is
1996 period, 34 (50%) were youth
limitation in the depth and scope of reproductive health
(Department of Health).
topics covered by the Samoa Family Health Association.
Gonorrhoea has increased markedly over the
Not all youth health information providers are properly
past decade, particularly in urban Apia and
trained resulting in misinformed youth.
amongst the 15-24 age group. Health
There are too few opportunities for youth to discuss these
Department staff estimate that the actual
health concerns.
number of cases may be nearly three to four
Youth say.. .
times the o%cial figures. This 'hidden' epidemic
of STDs is a concern as sex is the main mode
"Family Planning Association Clinics are too
of transmission of HIV. There have been seven
public- everyone can see us.
known Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
We cannot (will not) go to the Women's Committees
(AIDS) deaths in Samoa to date. Youth,
for health information and advice.
including children, were among this group.
Local doctors are judgmental when questioned
about sexual matters and needs.
Youth Suicide
There are not enoughplaces where youth can get a
condom when they require one."
As mentioned in the section on vulnerable
groups, the most serious health issues identified
by youth surveyed in the Apia Urban Youth Survey found were suicide and substance abuse.
Suicide is often termed the 'disease of despair'. Reasons triggering youth suicide attempts are believed to include
lack of communication between parentslguardians and children/adolescents, failed love affair; alcohol and drug
abuse and failure in school. A significant number of suicide attempts can be traced directly back to family
arguments, which suggest changing relationships within families today, and perhaps a need for families to learn to
communicate with each other more effectively.
The 1994 AUYS showed that 1,472 (42%; 508 males and 964 females) of the youth felt their social life could be
better with an improved relationship with parents. The social environment is therefore a vital factor in youth
There is an urgency for informed
dialogue and communication of
these issues; amongst youth, and
between youth their parents and
community elders. Further, there is
a need for neutral venues where
youth can resolve arguments
instead of choosing suicide as a
Youth Awareness of Health Issues
Despitc concerns youth have for
these health issues, there appears
to be little overall awareness of
other major health issues- their
a n d i t i o n s originating in the Perinatal period
Injury and poisoning
causes and ways to protect and
Infectious and parasitic diseases
promote good health. For an
example, the 1994 AUYS found
that only 1% of the youth were
aware that a virus caused AIDS.

Awareness of health issues also increases with education. Wi
education were most aware of the disease (91% aware).
education (55% aware). (Health Sector Strategic Plan 1998-2003). There is also a lack of understanding regarding
the relationships between good diet, exercise and good health.
Reproductive Health
The very high incidence of illnesses relating to reproductive health is alarming: two-thirds of youth admission to
hospital are for complications of pregnancy and childbirth. This suggests several things: reproductive health
education is not reaching girls, women and families; there
are unknown social and economic factors that affect
women's health during their reproductive years. Reports
Figure 2 1-6 Age Groups at Which Those Who Had
note that most Samoan women of childbearing age suffer
Never Been Marrled First Experienced Sex
from anaemia and other micronutrient deficiencies.
Samoa h%& a high literacy rate and extensive health outreach;
yet the rate'oFfamily planning practice and the use of
contraceptives is low. Suggested contributing factors are:
an ineffective follow-up system, inadequate participation
of males in the promotion and practice of family planning
and shortage of contraceptive supplies. In addition, some
believe that the faa-Samoa means of education,
communication, and learning have not been fully used to
promote reproductive health and family planning messages
to adolescents.
Table 2.1 -2: Sexually Active $ap~lation*
and Family Planning Use (1999 DHS)
" Includes those who were married (including defacto relationships),
widowed, divorced, separated, and never married but have had sex
The customary view that Samoan youth should not be
sexually active makes reproductive health a very
sensitive issue. The 1999 Demographic and Health
Survey asked all persons aged 15 to 49 years who were
never married "Have you ever had sexual intercourse?."
The results are shown in Table 2.1-2.
Those never married who responded "yes" to having
had sex (24% in total) were also asked their age when
sex was first experienced. The results clearly indicate a
sexually active youth population. Almost half of all
those who had experienced sex had first done so during
their teenage years (Figure 2.1-6). It should be noted
that among teenagers, the rate reported is much lower
(6% for males and 5% for females) which suggests a
reluctance among teenagers to report the truth until it
is morally, socially and culturally safer to do so, i.e.,
when they are older. The average age at first sexual
encounter was 19.9 years (19.6 for males and 19.9 for
Family Planning
The 1999 DHS found a Contraceptive Prevalence Rate
among the sexually active population aged 15-49 years
Youth need basic health care and health
promdional education on how to maintain their
of 31% (20% for males and 42% for females). Table 2.1-
heailh and prevent ill health.
3 also shows that for teenagers, the rate is higher

for males (34%) but is significantly lower
for females (18%). This suggests that
young males enjoy easier access to
contraceptives (condoms) than young
females (the pill). That the majority of the
sexually active are not using family
planning methods can have disastrous
implications. Combine the unprotected sex
with the relative ease of entry to nightclubs
and bars, limited communication between
parentsJguardians and adolescents, the
influx of blue and x-rated movies, the
inadequacy of programmes and information
on sexuality and the result is ideal
conditions for an increase in both unwanted
T h e unborn human fetus: how qany teenagers are aiternptmg abortion
pregnancies and the exponential spread of
when they fall pregnant?
STD's including the dreaded HIV.
Unplanned Teenage Pregnancies and Abortion
Pregnant teenagers have been identified as vulnerable and
some information on this problem has been given in Section
1.8 (page 36). The high number of stillbirths recorded among
teenagers has also been noted in the Youth Demography
Section (page 12). There is no logical explanation for the higher rate of stillbirths among young girls who are
presumably fit and healthy.
When a young, unmarried girl still going to school discovers she has accidentally fallen pregnant, she faces two
broad choices: allow for the birth and the issues involved (spiritual, emotional, intellectual, physical, social,
cultural, and economic) or conceal the pregnancy andlor try to abort the baby. It is also recognised that there may
be many compelling reasons why a young mother would seek to abort a baby. These include cases of rape, incest,
and extreme social and family pressure. It is suspected that abortion attempt is the reason why the rate of
stillbirths among teenagers is so much higher than among older women. While abortion is illegal in Samoa under

the Crimes Act 1961, senior medical staff both in pub& and private health facilities and the Samoa Family Health
Association (SFHA) believe that it is happening. ~ h d i t i o n a l
methods include drinking toxic concoctions and
inserting toxic leaf-stems of plants known to induce &iscarriage. The SFHA Strategic Plan (1996) states "there
is evidence, too, that doctors and nurses conduct dbortions:' It also notes that "the National Hospital admits
many cases of incomplete and septic abortion, only some of which are the result of spontaneous miscarriage'?

Many attempts were made to obtain data from the National Hospital on this subject but this was not possible
under the time constraints for the writing of this document.
There appears to be an increase in the number of women suffering from cancer of the cervix and breast although
data in this area is lacking. It is not known how many women in the youth age bracket are afflicted with cancer
but health officials have placed early diagnosis and treatment of cancer illnesses as one of the priorities over the
next "few7' years. The specific Cause is not known but it is suspected that for cervical cancer some of the factors
may be the early age at first intercourse,
Fgirre 2.1 -7: ?b af Youth 10-29 Years Old Who Had Not Eaten Any
multiple sexual partners, human papilloma
Fruit, Greens or Other Vegetables the Day Before, by Gender
virus (HPV) infections of the cervix and
Diet and Nutrition
Non-communicable diseases such as
diabetes and hypertension and related
complications are an increasing health
problem for youth. The 1994 AUYS asked
youth if they had eaten any fruit, green
vegetables or other vegetables the day
before. Among the 12,894 youth 10-29

years old, 42% had not eaten any fiuit, 26% had not eaten leafy
green vegetables and 35% had not eaten any other vegetables. There
Figure 2.1 8: Obesity Among Youth
20-29 Years Old (1 991 -1 995 Study)
are gender differences in diet with females eating more h i t s and
vegetables (Figure 2.1-7).
Micronutrient deficiencies, especially iron deficiency anaemia, are
problems among women and children. Nearly 56% of women
attending antenatal care at the National Hospital in 1995 were found
to be anaemic.
While malnutrition among children is about underweight children,
with adults the opposite is the problem. Obesity (overweight) affects
Table 2,l-3: Prevalence of Obesity
a s i e c a n t proportion of the
Severely Total
~o@ation. A five year
Total Obese
longitudinal study of the
Female 20vears and over
lggl and 1995 shaved
that the prevalence of obesity in
Samoa is on the rise with well over
Rural Upolu
half the population over 20 years
of age overweight (cited in a 1998
20-29 years
World Bank document - "Samoa
SOURCE 0 Mendoza (1995), nted in SamoaHealth Sector Remew, I998
Health Sector Review: Meeting the
Challenges of Development7')).
Among those 20-29 years old, there was found to be a total obesity rate of 41%:
24% obese with 17% severely obese (Table 2.1-3 and Figure 2.1-8).
Alcohol & Snu~kkg
Figure 2.1 -9: Regular Smokers
by Gender Among Youth
This problem is touched on in the discussion under vulnerable groups (Section
10-29 Years of Age
1.8, pages 33-35). A large percentage of youth are known to be drinking
alcohol and it seems they are starting the habit fiom a younger age.
Tbompsen's 1995 survey of 750 teenagers found that 50 % of males and
33% of females aged 13-19 years drank alcohol and that 73% ofthem had
started drihking between the ages of 13 and 17 years. It is significant that
70% of males and 87% of females said their parents did not allow them to
drink. This raises questions about how, where and when youth are getting
alcohol. The 1994 A W S 1994 found among youth 10-29 years old that
43% were regular smokers, i.e., smoking at least one cigarette a day. By
gender, three times more male youth than female youth were smoking regularly
(Figure 2.1-9). As to be expected, cigarette smoking was found in the A W S
to increase with age (Figure 2.1-10). It was also found that youth in full time
employment smoke more than those in school or unemployed.
Figure 2.1-10: Regular Smokers by Age Group, Gender
&af Health
Despite limited data on this subject, a senior
member ofthe dental unit considers the=
to have been an overall decline in oral W t h
1 - 1
among young people over the recent past.
The 1995/1996 Annual Report of the
Department afHealthshows WJustunder
half of all patients seen in the Dental unit
(includes both clinical and preventative
services), have had diseased teeth
extracted, i.e., some 20,728 extractions out
of 46,357 patients. This issue requires,
among other initiatives, educational
programmes to address the eating habits
of children and youth.

While education is compulsory from ages 5-14 years
2 2-1. Government and Non-Government Schools
(to Year 8), it is not free. It is nevertheless heavily
by Level
subsidized in public schools. There is provision under
the Compulsory Education Act 1991192 for families to
apply for assistance from Government to pay school
fees if they need such assistance. It is known that there
are children 12-14 years of age who are not attending
school. What is not known is how many. To date, no
families have exercised their right to apply for
government assistance with fees, although inability to
pay school fees and to meet other costs, are commonly
cited as the reason why a child is not at school. A
breakdown of the range of school fees at the primary
and secondary levels is given in Table 2.2-2.
National Examinations: Year 8, Year 11, Year 12
Figure 2 2-2: Government and Non-Gavernment
and Year 13
Enrolment by Academic Year
Starting at five years of age, a child can, without
repeating, theoretically enrol in Year 8 when he or
she is 12 years old, the lower limit of the youth age
bracket of this policy. Education Department data
for 1999 show Year 8 as the most repeated of school
years (192 in 1999). The Year 8 examination is the
first of a series of four. Other examinations with a
high number of repeaters are in Year 11 (181 in 1999)
and Year 12 (151 in 1999). Interestingly, the only
other year with a high number of repeaters is the
first year of school (154 in 1999).
While just under one in four schools are non-
government, government schooling is
Figure 2.2-3: Average National Transition
predominant at lower levels of education
Rate (1 995-1 999)
accounting for just over 80% of all primary
schools (Figure 2.2-1). By the time a person
enters the youth age bracket, he or she can
attend one of four government senior
secondary schools, mostly in Apia, or 17
non-government schools.
Figure 2.2-2 (government and non-
government enrolment by academic year)
indicates the dominant role played by non-
government schools in secondary education.
In 1999, non-government schools enrolled
some 36% of all students in Years 8-13. For Years 11-13, this figure rises to half of all enrolment.
Analysis of the 5-year average National Transition Rates (1995 to 1999) reveals that 1 out of every 21 students
(the average class size at this level) who start out in Year 8 eventually gain entry to the University Preparatory
Year (Table 2.2-3). The sharp decline of transition rates over this critical period of education can be seen in
Figure 2.2-3.
Corporal Punishment
Sometimes administered severely, corporal punishment is a disciplinary action still common in many schools.
This is despite a clear regulation that prohibits teachers from striking students. Article 15 of the Education
Department Policies (1992) given to all new teachers states that "teachers are not permitted to inflict any
physical punishment on any student", that it is a "criminal ofSence for a teacher to lay hands on any student".
There have been many reports appearing in the press over the years concerning the physical and verbal abuse of
students. There is a need for teacher training and on the job support with regards to classroom discipline and

application of more effective non-violent methods. However, many still
Figure 2.2-4: Expendibre Breahdowrt
believe in the old adage "spare the rod and spoil the child" Again this is Bemeen
Schools and the Criiieges (1 999-2000)
a situation of traditional methods of discipline which will not bend to
more innovative and effective techniques of class control and creating
an effective learning environment. Most teachers get away with this kind
of abuse when they are not monitored and to a certain extend when
parents also believe in the extremes of such methods.
Equity of Resource Allocation (Government)
An examination and close scrutiny of allocation of public resources reveals that the Government is spending more
on four colleges (Vaipouli College, Samoa College, Avele College, and Leifiifi College) than it does on all Junior
4 Scondary Schools combined (Table 2.2-4).
Figure 2.2-4: shows that 54% of direct public expenditure is to the four colleges. The per-student direct cost by
colleges and the combined Junior Secondary Schools is shown in Figure 2.2-5.
Figure 2.2-6 looks more closely at the four colleges compared with all 21 Junior Secondary Schools. As an example,
it can be seen that Vaipouli College with
Figure 2 2-5 Per-St! rdent Direct Expendriure. Junror Seeonclay Schools and
10% of enrolment receives 15% of public
the Coileyes Estimated for 1999-2000)
funds for colleges. Leifiifi College has
19% of enrolment but 9% of funding.
While the isolation and boarding costs
of Vaipouli College and other colleges
may help explain the difference, a closer
look at this issue is warranted as
students and teachers at many of the
Junior Secondary Schools have to put
up with unacceptable conditions.
Post-Secondary Education
Post-Secondary Education options in
the formal system are the National
5 1 University of Samoa, the University of the South Pacific (Alafua Campus), the University of the South Pacific
(Extension Centre), and the Samoa Polytechnic. There are also other options, run by private businesses in urban
Apia, in such fields as typing and computer training.
Overall, only a small percentage of students actually enter tertiary education. Department of Education data for
post-secondary Year 1, Year 2 and Year 3 together comprise 2.4 %(1,233 students) of the total enrolled nationally
in 1998 and 1.1% (563 students) in 1999. These figures are reported to include the National University of Samoa
(NUS) and the technical schools. The declining tertiary level roll over these two years has not been verified with
the post-secondary institutions but it is known that the UPY enrolment at the NUS dropped slightly from 217 in
Semester 1 1999, to 211 in Semester 1 2000. Of the total enrolled in Post Secondary Year 1,3,430 (35 %)in 1998 were
women and in the following year (1999), 117 (21%) were women, an alarming gender trend. This data has also not
been verified.
A major government focus is improving access to tertiary education as a way of addressing the shortages of
technical expertise in the workforce. Government is encouraging scholarship students to enroll at NUS for all
courses offered. There has been an expansion and consolidation of in-country options for tertiary study in the last
Figure 2.2-6: Comparisot~
of D!rect Expendrture and Enroirneni at the Four Government
Colleges (Esi~mated
for '1 999-2000)
! Expenditure 1
c o l k e
c o k e

ten years. These include
the opening of the
National University
(1996197); the expansion
of Polytechnic; the
Nursing and Teacher
Training into the NUS,
and the movement of the
Marine Training School
into the Polytechnic.
under upgrade review
education, nursing,
Samoan language and
culture as well as the
University Preparatory
Year (UPY). The National
Students at the University of the South Pacific, Alafua Campus
University of Samoa with
a University Preparatory Year (UPY) roll of 211 students in Semester 1,2000, is the only tertiary level government
institution offering degree and non-degree programmes. The UPY programme, the foundation upon which the
NUS was developed, is under going review as the present system is seen as elitist, fostering segregation rather
than integration within the University. Another concern relates to those UPY students who drop out when they
fail to obtain scholarships for studies overseas. The NUS Strategic Plan 2000-2004 proposes that from the year
2001, students will no longer be required to enroll in the UPY programme. Instead, all new students will enroll in
faculties of the University so that all students can choose to continue with their studies should they not obtain
The Samoa Polytechnic has ongoing programs in commerce and computing, automotive, electrical, fitting and
machining. Samoa Polytechnic has ongoing programs in three schools; School of Technology, Maritime Training,
Commerce and General Studies. Programs at Samoa Polytechnic are largely industry driven, therefore when
community needs are verified the institution develops appropriate programmes. A recent example is the short
journalism course programme, which caters to the working journalist without formal training. A full-time journalism
course is also being developed for school 1eavers.Scholarships for women in the trades / technological areas
have been made available through AusAid, government, Commercial and private sponsorship. A successful
gender equity promotion at Polytechnic has created equal access for both men and women into all programmes.
Tertiary study is also available through distance mode at the USP Centre at Alafua. An average of 200 students
per year take advantage of the USP certificate, diploma and degree courses. USP School of Agriculture also
offers advanced degrees. In addition there has been an effort to increase female participation in tertiary education
Figure 2.2-7: t999 Enrolment by Schooi Year Qevei):
by offering scholarships to women in the trades under
Gender & Projected Populat~on
overseas aid schemes as well as government and private
2500 ,
sector sponsorship. One of the few trade areas that
women dominate is computer studies.
NUS Faculty of Education, whose enrolment consists
of predominantly female students is trying to attract
more male students. The percentage of female students
has continued to increase. Of the 247 Diploma in
Bducation enrolments in Semester 1 1999, 157 were
(64%). In Semester 1,2000,281 students enrokd,
$nd 193 (69%) were female.
A National Training Authority (NTA) with representatiar*
gram all the trades schools, the NUS and the Department
of Education, has to be established to help strengthen li ages and coordination at the post secondary level. Its
roles and responsibilities include facilitating the coordination of post secondary resources and ensuring that
school leavers and others have the requisite skills with respect to labour market demands as well as the knowledge
required for further training. It is not known if the NTA is functioning or how it proposes to establish a dialogue
with industry.

Studying Overseas
During 1998, some 1,465 departures were classified as "attending school" by the Immigration Office. There are
several scholarship schemes available to youth to further their studies.
Figure 2.2-8: Current Status of Overseas
The Government of Samoa, the NZ and Australian ~kwernments,
Schoiarship Students: 1
World Health Organization, and the Commonwealth Fgfid for Technical
Cooperation all have well-established programs. These schemes send
a total of between 40 and 90 students abroad, around 40% of whom
are mature-aged students. For the remaining 60%, awards are based
on UPY examination results with the top students selected.
The emphasis placed on academic achievement is seen to promote a
system wherein failure offers no second option. The need
upgrading of rural educational facilities as well as further professio
support for the teachers in these areas is vital for the development
all youth. Furthermore the development of institutions such as
Polytech, Don Bosco and Punaoa as other viable and attractive option
on place of origin, it also appears that most scholarship students
academic terms) secondary schools are located.
Other concerns include the limited employment market for an ever-increasing number of returni
comparative wage levels, the need for studies to be better tailored to local needs and condition
services available lo scholarship students.
The Scholarships Division of the Ministry of Foreign count 830 scholarships for tertiary studies abroad awarded
by the Government of Samoa from 1990-1999. Students study in Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Papua New
Guinea, Fiji, and Samoa. Of this total, 374 (45%) have since returned and are known to have found jobs in the
private and public sectors. Of the remainder, 310 (37%) are ongoing students, 81 (10%) have terminated (failed)
and 65 (8%) have unknown destinations (Figure 2.2-8). In addition to overseas schemes, the Government offers
scholarships for tertiary study at NUS (currently set at 40 full scholarships and 20 partial scholarships for the
year 2000, on an incremental basis). As well, 20 at any one time to both the University of the South Pacific
Extension Centre and the University of the South Pacific. Since 1997, Government has approved an annual
investment of SAT$M1.8 of taxpayers' money for scholarships.
Participation Rates
Published enrolment data and participation rates of
Figure 2.2-9: Paficcipatton Rates 1996-1 999
the Education Department for 1999 is inconsistent
with projected population figures for the same years
obtained from the Statistics Department. The average
participation rate from 1996-1999 reveal 94% for the 5-
14 age group and 61% for the 15-19 year age bracket
(Figure 2.2-9). In 1999, the national enrolment of
students in Years 1 to 8 was 42,263, slightly higher
than the projected population of 41,922. At the
secondary level however, 17,545 students were
enrolled in Years 8-13 while the projected population
for the same age group (12-17 years) was 22,155. From
this data, an estimated 4,600 (21%) secondary school-aged students, are not at school (Figure 2.2-10). Education
Department participation data analysed with population projections also suggests more girls than boys are out
of school at the primary level and that this participation rate by gender is reversed at the secondary level.
Special Needs Education
Figure 2 2 ' 0 . Ali Secondary Students E~lroiied m 1999
Youth with special needs has been introduced under
and Esttrnate of Those kiot at School
Vulnerable Groups (Section 1.8). The Policy considers
all youth with with physical or intellectual impairments
in need of special education and training. Defining
youth with special education needs is a difficult task
compounded in Samoa by the very little research
conducted into people with disabilities as mentioned
earlicr. This is further complicated by the tendency for
disabled youth to be kept at home partly for socio-

such disabilities), and partly because "mainstream" schools simply cannot accommodate youth with disabilities,
i.e., they do not have trained staff or appropriate aids and equipment.
Non-Formal Education
While some government departments deliver non-formal training workshops on a range of subjects as diverse as
the departments themselves (health, tourism, environment, water), the greater number of these programs is
provided by non-government organisations including religious organisations. The range of needs addressed include
promoting well-being, income
generation, gender equality, leadership
skills, reproductive health and
environmental stewardship. Section
1.9, Youth Service Providers, lists the
different organisations involved in non-
formal training and gives information
on the kinds of programs they provide.
This section examines some of key education issues, most of which are shared by the stakeholders and the
community groups who participated in workshops for this purpose held in towards the end of 1998. The Department
of Education's Educational Policies and Strategies (1995 - 20051, identifies a number of other issues. Read
together, a more complete picture can be obtained on this subject. Issues synthesized here are from the perspective
of a youth policy and are divided into three broad areas: formal education, non-formal education, and special
needs education.
Compulsory and Free Primary Education
While the community is calling for greater subsidies from government for education at all levels, there is provision
under the Compulsory Education Act 1991192 for fees to be paid by government in cases where such payment is
discovered to be warranted. Awareness of this provision needs to be raised in order for those other factors
contributing to non-compliance may begin to be addressed by the community.
Students at Robert Louis Stevenson School. The highsf Tees chaiged at t l h ~
rndependeni school, where
teachers are better paid than rn public schoois, more Gdoasrv reflect rhe true cost of e~iucation
In Samoa, at
both t h e primary and secondary level

Equity and Examinations
At the primary level, the principle language of instruction is Samoan. The first major examination sat by students,
the Year 8 exam, is in English. This exam is the first in a series that effectively selects students for further
education. It also places rural youth at a distinct disadvantage given their limited exposure to English and sets the
greater majority of Samoa's youth on an unstable base upon which to build their future. The evaluative approach
taken with examinations does not adequately reflect the student's capacity or innate competence.
Equity in Public Resource Allocation
The move to a single stream curriculum in public secondary schools
is a significant step towards dismantling the notion that certain
schools are "best" and only the elite are accepted there. Inequitable
allocation of public funds can, however, continue status quo to
the disdvantage of the majority of students simply because a few
schools have better resources and facilities and attract "better"
teachers while most schools struggle on with extremely limited
resources and facilities.
Relevance of Curricula to Village Life and Economy
Although progress is being made in this area, the academic
orientation of secondary education still needs to have greater
relevance to village life and economv. There continues to be an
FdeataJuniov Secondary Schoo! student. This
over emphasis at the Senior Secondary School level on white-
ondar schooi known to have pwr
collar jobs. The fact remains that, with an extremely limited job
facilities and resources.
market, most school leavers will need to make their living in the
village economy. It is encouraging to note that with the move to a single-stream integrated secondary system, an
expanded curriculum will systematically introduce applied subjects such as Industrial Arts, Food and Textile
Technology, Business Studies and Agricultural Science.
School Dropouts and Those Who Leave School
The Education Department estimates some 3,000 to 4,000 school leavers every year with as many as one-third
dropping out at the end of Year 8. The data indicates that for every 4 to 6 students enrolled at the secondary level,
will have dropped out (more on this subject can be found in Vulnerable Groups, Section 1.8). The sharply
declining transition rates mean that the majority of these youth do not reach a very high level of schooling
resulting in limited prospects for their future.
Corporal Punishment
While there are regulations prohibiting teachers from striking school students, their use as a disciplinary measure
is commonplace, both at school and at home. Often severe, this issue is considered one of many causes contributing
to serious social problems among youth such as crime, suicide and substance abuse.
The important role of non-formal education is
recognized at the grassroots level, but it is not yet
well-understood at policy levels, particularly in
terms of its linkages to formal components of the
education arena. The inadequacies of the formal
system are being increasingly highlighted as the
range of issues facing youth and those affected by
them increase. How, where and when training
programmes are delivered (outside of the
classroom) needs to be fully explored and may
have to be systematized in a modular, skills-based
certification system approved by the NTA.
Students enjoy a break from formal studies
While recent developments in this area bode well for the disabled and learning-impaired, the ratio of those
currently receiving special education to the number of youth estimated to be in need of such programs could be
as high as 1:30 and is therefore still a long way from being adequately addressed.

The National Youth Policy promotes the provision of opportunities for young people to attain gainful employment
or to be self-employed through a range of capacity building strategies. These strategies include the development
and promotion of employment and training initiatives such as on the job training, job placement, entrepreneurship,
livelihood skills training and improving access to resources.
Employment and occupation are very important to the well-being, the peace and the security of the family and the
individuals that compose it. The Government's Statement of Economic Strategy lists eight strategic outcomes it
hopes to achieve over the 2000-2001 period. Significantly, all eight strategies have direct bearing on issues of
employment and occupation.
For the purposes of this policy, an employed youth is any youth working for pay or profit or who works as an
unpaid worker in a family business or in agriculture. This includes the traditional understanding that caring for
parents and other household services (non-SNA) is a form of employment. An
unemployed youth is any youth who is looking for work or is available to take a job.
The potential to further develop marketable sports as a form of employment is
also recognized (refer to Section 2.6 Youth Recreation).
The Economically Active Population
Of the estimated 57,000 economically active people in Samoa in 1991,
around 25,000 or 45% were youth in the 15-29 year age bracket. Figure
2.3-1 shows the breakdown of youth who worked primarily to earn
and to grow, gather or catch food to eal. The overall percentages
of youth earning money rose from 32% in 1991 (Census) to 53% in 1999
(Preliminary Findings of the 1999 Agriculture Census). Conversely, youth growing,
gathering or catching food to eat amounted to 68% of those who were economically
active in 1991. By 1999, the percentage of all those who were economically active
and engaged in agriculture appears to have fallen to 47% (preliminary findings).
The final report of the 1999 Agriculture Census reveals, however, that some 80%
of households are engaged in agriculture. By gender there appears to have been a
Figure 2.3-1 1 Employed Youth (15-29') by Broad Economic
F,ciivity Gmup and Gender (9 991 Census and 1999 DHS)
, falling from 60% of the
working female youth population in 1991 to just 7% in 1999 (Figure 2.3-1).
Youth employment and occupation in Samoa can be examined under two broad categories:
An informal sector that includes the traditionally dominant subsistence sector. Agriculture still occupies a significant
percentage of the economically active population but, as shown above, is declining in importance as the economy

3ecomes more monetized. The informal sector also embraces
an increasingly important and wide range of income-
generating activities such as handcrafts and small engine
The 1991 Census found some 66% of the economically active
population employed in agriculture. While agricultural
activity continues to absorb significant numbers of school
leavers, particularly young men, various factors have served
to diminish both their interest and involvement in farming.
Youth learn carving skills fr'ro-n Neema Tuirnaiatr.~
Revenues from agriculture have fallen badly over the last
of Vafato, Fagaloa, a master carver
ten years increasing the dependence of both rural and urban households on wage earners in the formal sector. The
1999 Demographic and Health Survey revealed the percentage working in agriculture to have declined to 58% of
the economically active population. Despite this decline, the importance and potential of agriculture for the
employment and occupation of youth remains significant.
Other Income-Generating Activities
The informal sector includes a wide range of income-generating activities. Apart from agriculture, employment
in the informal sector is a relatively new development. Like agriculture, the informal sector offers the potential to
bring greater benefits to more youth, and their families, than that derived from low-paying jobs in the limited
formal sector. Street and flea market trading is known to be expanding in Apia.
The Fornull Sector
For those in paid employment, the government, in 1986, introduced a legislated minimum wage at 62.5 sene per
hour. This was increased to $1.00/hour in 1991, to $1.25/hour in 1995, and in 1998 to the current rate of $1.401
hour. At 12% inflation over the period from 1995 to 1998, the 15 sene increase in the minimum wages is barely
keeping up with the cost of living and can be argued to be inadequate. There is no wage differential between
in the
Figure 2.3-2: Total Workers in Public and Private Sectors by
formal sector comprises both the public and private
Gender (I999
Laaboui Market Demand Survey)
sectors. Table 2.3-1 gives the average weekly wage
and the total number of male and female workers in
these sectors as enumerated by the 1998 Labour
Market Demand Survey (LMDS).
A graphical representation of this is shown in Figure
2.3-2. This analysis shows that, overall, 65% of paid
employment is in the private sector and 35% is in the
public sector. By gender, 48% of public sector
employees are females compared to 39% in the private
NPF Data
MI employers and employees in Samoa are required
by law to contribute to the National Provident Fund
(NPF) by way of monthly returns. NPF records,
updated quarterly, provide detailed data on paid employment in the formal sector. Table 2.3-2 below gives the
number of employees by industry over the six years from 1994 to 1999. The number of employees contributing
to the Fund in 1998 was 22,678, over 6,000 more than those listed in the 1998 LMDS. The reason for this
discrepancy is not known but the figures from the NPF are considered to be more accurate. It is not known what
percentage in the private sector are youth but, as mentioned earlier, among those employed by the Public Service
Commission, 29% are youth.
The data in Table 2.3-2 has been ranked according to the 1999 returns. As can be seen, employment in Public
is highest at around 40%. This category includes those employed both by the Public Service
Commission and government corporations. Over the six-year period from 1994 to 1999, the total number of
employees has grown by 9%, equivalent to 1,895 new jobs. There has been an overall decrease of the total
making NPF returns in Construction and in Agriculture and Fishing. However, it is known that these sectors
have experienced growth (it is not mandatory for primary producers to furnish NPF returns). The greatest increase
in employees over the period was recorded in Other Services (535) and Accommodation/Restaurants (364)

it F&i<$b
FGAlrfAE PJi7 T~jP(j:ifki;,A~
T&uVtQ[! 3
$4""\\<:A N&""i:2p&&: VQGYkl PC t*C;k: 230.1 >Q7 0

reflecting the growth in tourism. The 1996 peak in the number of employees came about with the creation, by the
end of that year, of 3,620 jobs at Yazaki. Those employed in Other Manufacturing has since declined to only 95
more employees than there were in 1994 suggesting some stagnation in the manufacturing sector. Yazaki currently
employs some 1,250 people, 90% of whom are youth and 75% are female. The average number of contributors
each year is just under 23,000 (Figure 2.3-3). Of the 23,009 recorded at the NPF in 1999,13,138 were male and
9,871 were females (Figure 2.3-4).
MYSCA Surveys Concerning Employment
The Ministry of Youth, Sports and Cultural Affairs has conducted two surveys addressing the question of
A survey conducted in 1989 interviewed some 48 youth groups on unemployment and youth needs in urban
areas. That survey defined youth as between 15 and 35 years and urban areas as within a 3-mile radius of Apia.
Of the 1,842 persons surveyed (1,036 males and 806 females), 32.1% were unemployed, 34.2% were students
and 33.7% were employed. Given the greater opportunities for employment in the urban areas, this figure lends
credence to the 41% nationwide estimate for 1999 calculated above. The highest number of the unemployed in
the 1989 survey was found to be in the 20 to 30 year age group. The two major causes of youth unemployment
identified by the survey were a lack of job opportunities (33%) and a lack of knowledge or education (29%).
The lack of job opportunities in the country for youth holds as true today as a decade ago. The PSC, advertising
11 basic-grade positions recently attracted 149 applicants. The jobs paid $3,008 per annum or $1.45/hour, just
above the minimum wage rate. The ratio applying for jobs at Yazaki is lower where, for every 1 factory worker
employed, 4 will have applied. Travel consultants assisting applicants to the NZ immigration quota for 2000 have
-- recorded iwo \\o three times the number of young people seeking to 6
emigrate to N Z as compared to those applying in 1999. The N Z High
Commission report the number applying undcr the Quota schcmt: has
increased from around 2,600 i n 1999 to 4,700 in 2000.
For 1998, the Immigration Department and Department of Statistics
recorded a total of 4,028 departures (2,677 males and 1,351 kmalcs)
with '.new employment" as the main purpose oftravel. This rcpressnls a
ratio of 2. males to cvcry 1 l'emale traveling overseas for employment
.... ..
purposes (Figure 2.3-5).
5 s
The 1994 Apia Urban Youth Survey also asked questions concerning thr:
Saiiiernanu beota, a youth
economic sccuritv of vouth. Among thc 12,977 youth (10-29 years), 3,338

(26%) were in full-time paid employment, 1,954 males and 1,384 females
working w ~ i h
(Table 2.3-3). Of those classified as "neither7' full-time employed or full-
time students, the highest two strategies
Fgilre 2.3-3: Total Employed Persons Conir~fiut~ng
to NPF if
youth felt would improve their economic life
25,000 1
were assistance with agriculture and
technological training.
24,000 i
Unemployment and Underemployment
The 1991 census defines employment as
'persons actively seeking work or available
for work and not otherwise engaged in
subsistence employment.' Underemployment
may be defined as persons seeking full time
employment but currently engaged in some
part-time work in the informal sector, i.e.,
subsistence agriculture or some other income
generating activity.
It is difficult to estimate the levels of unemployment in a country like Samoa where people who do not have paid
jobs are expected to work the family lands. By this definition, the 1991 census enumerated 5,158 (or approximately
3% of the population) as unemployed. The 20-24 age group constitute the largest percentage of unemployed
youth. There are more unemployed women than males at all ages but more so in the 15-24 age group (6.2%). The
largest numbers of unemployed youth reside in the urban area.
The AUYS found youth to perceive under-employment as a major issue. Nearly a quarter of the youth surveyed
were not working nor studying full time. Of this number, over 80% of this group were engaged in activities which

supported their family's subsistence security. Reason given for
Figure 2.3-4: Total Employed Persans
Contributing to the N P F by Gender (1 999)
unemployment included: restricted formal education, limited
employment opportunities, low wages, and family responsibilities such
as caring for an elderly family member.
For both males and females, more than half (54% males, 58% females)
of the unemployed/underemployed youth in the AUYS survey in the
'neither' category completed their education at the Junior Secondary
level. A little more than 20% of both males and females (24% males,
28% females) had a Senior Secondary level of education and 3%
unemployed males and females completed schooling at the tertiary
level. The data seems to point out that even at a Senior Secondary School level, youth were having difficulty
finding gainful employment and that education alone cannot solve the problems of employment. As the educational
levels o l unemployed youths were comparable to those youth in full time employment, it cannot be said that 'lack
of educational opportunities' is a significant factor in unemployment. However, unemployment could also be a
result of lack of appropriate education.
Fzgcre 2.3-5: "New Employment"
Departures b y Gender (1 998)
Lack of Employment Opportunities
The number of paid jobs is limited to around 23,000 and is unlikely to grow
significantly. The Department of Labor estimated 20,000 students had left
the formal education system and entered the job market between 1991 and
1996. The Job Employment Service, created in 1993, registered 3,300
unemployed actively seeking work between 1993 and 1996 but, only
managed to place 300 (9%) of the total (1994 AUYS).
Lack of appropriatc education and training for the occupation of youth in / "O"RC'"
" a t 1 m "
!*ma '"9"
work, whether paid or unpaid, that will improve their quality of life.
This issue points to the fact that, through education and training in basic skills including technological know-
how (e.g., how to fix a boken water pipe), youth can be productively engaged in work to improve the conditions
in which their families live (otherwise requiring payment).
Lack of support for agricultural activities beyond subsistence needs.
Agriculture is a major occupier of youth time and productivity. There are many areas in which support can be
provided to enhance agricultural activities that are above and beyond immediate subsistence needs- from
plantation technology to processing and marketing systems.
Youth in the 1994 AUYS identified access to land as a significant means to improve their economic status.
Freehold land, unless it is leased, is cost prohibitive. A quarter acre outside the urban area can be as high as
SAT40,000. Customary land, although relatively easy to access if a youth is more visibly involved in contributing
to family and village affairs, is under the control and authority of the rnatai and the benefits sometimes trickle
down to those who work the land.
Employment in Urbm Apia
The section on youth demography showed that almost half (46%) of the population in urban Apia are youth
(some 16,000 or one-fifth of the total youth population). The perception of parents and youth that there are
greater employment opportunities in Urban Apia is understandable given that this is where government and
most businesses are located. A significant percentage of youth in the Apia Urban Area are neither in school or
employed according to the 1994 AUYS and these numbers are believed to be increasing. At the same time the
numbers of youth involved in urban crime are also increasing according to crime statistics particularly in crimes
involving theft and burglary.
Skills Trainiag
As a result of leaving school early (one-third by the end of Year 8)' many youth find that they lack the skills or the
level of education required for employment. The data from the 1994 AUYS showed that the educational level of
unemployed youth were comparable to those youth in full-time employment. This suggests that "lack of educational
opportunities" is as significant a factor in unemployment as, say, the lack of appropriate education.
The other side of enforcing the Compulsory Education Act for school age youth engaged in the informal sector
is the impact it may have on a family's earnings particularly for the many families that do not have sufficient
income for their food and basic needs. More research is, nevertheless, required in this area.

The National Youth Policy advocates for all young people to be able to live in a nurturing and protective
environment that is free from all forms of abuse and exploitation. As young people are also involved in criminal
behaviour, the community is likewise entitled to protection. Young people in these circumstances need support
to change and to learn to build bridges of understanding between themselves, their families, and their community.
Social problems are closely linked to moral and ethical values. Without addressing and, indeed, strengthening
moral and ethical standards, social policies and programmes are unlikely to succeed. Problems of corruption,
crime and the weakening of family-life in particular, result from a lack of ethical values. Human well-being
requires material wealth, certainly, but even more so it requires moral and spiritual wealth. How to identify and
incorporate in social policy those factors that best promote spiritual wealth is a challenge that needs to be faced.
In the past, social infringements were settled within the aiga and village community systems only. While for many
misdemeanors, this can still be the case today, particularly in rural Samoa, there is now a justice system that
people are increasingly turning to. The increasing number of crimes reported to the police over the last two
decades suggests, among other factors, a weakening ability of the family and village systems to cope with rising
crime let alone the changing patterns of criminal behaviour emerging in these transitional times. Aspects of youth
and the justice system, particularly in relation to juvenile crime (under 21 years), have been examined under
Vulnerable Groups (Section 1.8). The findings Figufe 2.4-1 : Persons Sentenced
reported there are also relevant to youth under
Prison, by Broad Age
30 years of age.
(1 995-1 998)
Ficlure 2.4-2: Persons Placed
klnd& Probation, by Broad Age
Increased aspirations are causing more family
Adults 30+
Groups (1 995-1 998)
disputes over land, petty thieving and white
years (41%)
collar crime; while acts of physical and sexual
Ages 30 and
violence against women and children, and the
cultivation of marijuana and use of drugs and
other abusive substances are also on the rise.
Correctional Facility for Youth
As discussed under Vulnerable Groups (Section
1.8), the justice system does not separate young
offenders from adult criminals, be it in the courts
Figure 2.4-3: Persons Sentenced to Prison, by Crime,
Gender and Broad Age Groups (1 995- t 998)
T w
GI Male Youth
or in prison. There is no Juvenile or
E l Female Youth
Family Court and there is only one
O Male 30+
prison, which serves all offenders
regardless of age or sex. There needs
to be a separation in the way youth
are rehabilitated in the criminal
justice system. Efforts to improve
family relations and parentingcould
also be a part of the counseling. This
issue needs to be re-examined and
the recommendations made in a
1997 Report of the Committee on
the Rehabilitation Centre for Young
Offenders considered. That report

lists several recommendations, some of which are Fgure 2.4-4: Youth Placed Clnder Probation for Theft-Related
Crimes, by Gender, Compared With AII Other Crimes (1 995-98)
summarised below:
1. To establish a Rehabilitation Centre for
young offenders (under 21 years of age),
managed preferably by a husband and wife
(Ma'e Only
team, and located at either Vaidata (first
choice) or Tafaigata adjacent to the prison.
The Centre could serve to educate, train,
counsel and rehabilitate a young offender.
2. For the Centre to have a strong agricultural
component and also an open area for sports
and recreation.
3. For Child Welfare Officers to be appointed
as Centre staff (Infants Ordinance 1961).
4. For religious and other government and nongovernmental organisations lo be involved in crime
prevention programmes run at the Centre.
Figure 2 4-5: Male and Female Wuth Sentenced to Prtson and
Youth Sentenced to Prison
Placed Under Probation (1 995-1 998)
Table 2.4-1 and Figure 2.4-1 on the previous
160 7
page show that of the total 406 persons
140 i
sentanced to prison over the 1995-1998 period,
59% were youth (96% of whom were male).
Figure 2.4-2 was constructed from an analysis
of the crimes commited by those 406 persons
who were sentenced to prison over the 1995-
1998 period. While drug offences are the highest
cause for imprisonment overall (32%), for
youth, burglary and theft is the biggest problem
area as found earlier among those under 21
Persons Placed Under Probation
Table 2.4-2 and Figure 2.4-3 below show that
of the total 178 persons placed under probation
over the 1995-1998 period, 90% were youth (91% of whom were male). As found among those under 21 years
of age discussed in the Vulnerable Groups section (1.8), theft-related crimes make up the majority of offences
committed by those who were placed under probation. As shown in Figure 2.4-4, this amounts to 67% (59% of
male youth and 8% of female youth under probation)for their related crimes.
Analysis of those Sentenced to Prison and Placed Under Probation, 1995-1998
Table 2.4-3 and Figure 2.4-6 is an analysis of the total number of persons sentenced to prison and placed under
probation during the 1995-1998 period. Of the total 584 offences, 68% were
committed by youth (94% of whom were male).
%mtenced to Prison ania
PIaced Undei Probation,
~ U T H
by Gender (1 995-l998)
There has been a tendency to treat crime as an issue brought about by urbanization
and other concerns such as unemployment and poverty. While there may be some
truth in this notion, reports indicate that justice issues are becoming more common
in rural areas suggesting that a more complex combination of factors are coming
into play. High school dropout rates, limited job opportunities, under-employment,
discrimination against women and girls, the increasing cost of living, the growing
disparity between the rich and the poor, and the harmful influence of movies and
videos on young minds are among some of the factors which may be contributing
to increasing crime rates. Over the 1995-1998 period, crimes resulting in
occured in over 180 villages all over Samoa although the greater
majority were on Upolu. The data for this analysis is not complete with some 32
(13%) addresses not given.

In fact, of the approximately 239 offences resulting in youth incarceration over the 1995-1998 period, 28 (12%)
gave their address as a village on Savaii, 3 (1%) were from Manono-Tai, and 176 (74%) were from Upolu (Table 4
2.4-4). In terms of where offences were committed, the data shows half of those from Savaii commited their
crimes on Upolu.
Burglary and Theft
As the above analysis reveals, the highest numbers of
youth sentenced to prison and placed under probation
over the 1995-1998 period were for burglary and theft-
related crimes. Contributing factors include a marked
disparity between the rich and the poor of Samoa. Unlike
many other countries where neighborhoods can be
defined by socio-economic status, families at both ends
of the economic spectrum often live next door to each
other in Samoa. While stealing another person's property
is essentially a moral issue, cultural interpretation of
collective versus individual "ownership" and the concept
of sharing wealth can also influence behaviour.
Approximately 44% of the thefts and burglaries resulting
in youth imprisonment over the 1995-1998 period
Samoa has a 500-strong police force. T h ~ s
amounts to
slpproximalelv 60 Dol~ce
officers Per 20.000 Deoaie or one occurred in urban Apia. It may be that young people
poiice dfflcel- for every 122~outh
aged 12:29 years. moving from a rural to an urban setting have more
difficulty in adjusting and may fall into peer influences that result in crimes like burglaries and theft. A probation
officer found that youths under the jurisdiction of the courts often had a history of parental difficulties and had
moved away from home; usually to live with relatives or friends.
The data analysed reveals drugs as the second highest cause for incarceration. It also identifies a number of areas
where youth are frequently found in possession of marijuana such as in and around Apia (eg. at the Fugalei
Market). Of those sentenced to prison (1995-1998) for crimes committed in the greater Apia area, around 98 out
of 145 (68%) were by youth. Approximately 1 in 5 (22%) of
these youth were charged for "possession" of drugs, presumably -
marijuana. Likewise, there are certain areas in rural Samoa
where marijuana is known to be cultivated and where the drug
is likely to continue to be grown. Basically, the growing of
marijuana is in rural Samoa -
79% of those sentenced to prison
(1995-1998) for the cultivation of drugs were found in rural
areas. Over the 1995-1998 period, there were three youth sentenced to prison for possession of drugs who were
already in prison suggesting that marijuana may be available on the inside.
Rape, Indecent Assault and Other Crimes of@ Sexual Nature
Of those sentenced to prison for rape or attempted rape over the 1995-1998 period, 12 out of 17 (71%) were in
the youth age bracket, i.e., under 30 years of age. The average age of these pereptrators was 24 years and the
average age at which they left school was 16 years. For all sex-related crimes, 43 out of 72 (60%) were by youth.
Over 90% were committed in rural villages. Two areas in urban Apia where sex-related crimes have been committed
in the past are Taumeasina and Mulinuu. It is not known if the grounds on the seaward side of the Government
building is becoming a problem area but this and the seawall along beach road is a site selected by Sautiamai and
other organisations for the distribution of literature on HIVIAIDS and substance abuse.
Manslaughter, Murder and Other Acts of Physical Violence Including WiIful Damage
Out of 72 cases of those sentenced to prison (1995-1998) for acts of physical violence, 42 (57%) were youth (all
but one of whom were males). The greater majority of these cases are in rural villages.
Crime and Poverty
AS suggested above, poverty may be a contributing factor to crime as people turn to stealing and growing
marijuana to survive. The biggest marijuana bust to date occurred earlier this year at a beach resort in Savaii in
one of the most impoverished areas in the country recently devastated by Cyclones Ofa (1990) and Val (1991). In
this village, police discovered 99 plants and 30 rice sacks of marijuana. Three men were arrested- the youngest
was 23 years old.

'(8661 2 a N f i ) 6861 1 3 ~
luamuolpwg pue sdaluns ' s p u e ~
ayl s! Y D ~ M
'paqsgqe~sa uaaq ailey suoyeln%a~
pue s33v luamuoqaua [euo!leu 09 JaAo ' S M ~
paseq dl!unwmo3 ol uoyppe
u~ pue 'asuodsa~ u~ '(8661 &qs) s a ~ m o s a l
Iempu snoua%!puy uo paseq pue aIqeu!elsns sl leql ajg 30 d e ~

jo auypap aa;rssar%o~d
30 auo sl puarl p a n o aqA .uysns 01 ssa3ord Iernjeu ayj jo s s a ~ x au
! are ley1 uoyeqojdxa
laho pue uopepeBap 30 sjarlal8ugrqyxa s! $1 .u~ax~o:,
lo@^^ JOJ asne3 e mou s! luamuolpua mo JO alels luarm:,
aqL 'tuamuorya aql q j ! ~
duomreq u! p a q djleuoy!pe~~
sueomes ' ~ ~ o y s
UI d p ~ a q p u
l ~
d p a q p '~uauruo~!aua
ayl qlrM dgsuoge1ar s,uem u!e]u!em pue a$ea!yn:, ley$ 'depol $s!xa II!$S pue palyxa sarn13n.11~
S M B ~
: , p a d s 'arnlln3y8e a3uals~sqns
UF pasgear a3uq.rodmy aql u l paioagal se 'ajq jo d
e ~
aqt jo lred p8alu! ue sy qlwma I! l e y l l ~ e
pue luamuoqhua aqL

to the 1994 National Environmental Management Strategy for Samoa (NEMS), efforts to achieve sustainable
development depend on the full participation and mobilization of youth creativity, ideals and other attributes. The
main method of engaging Samoan youth in the environment has been through educational awareness activities
which have included:
National and local workshops
Dissemination of information via media &prepared information packages to schools and community

Educational Seminars for local schools & youth groups
Promotion of conservation programs
Establishment Environmental Resource Centqrs (Publication & Multi-media) example;
Nalional Environmental Resource Database of Samoa (NERDS)

Outreach program to villages
Youth 8r Environment
Activities. June 1999
Key Environment Organisations
The Department of Lands, Survey, & Environment (DLSE) is the leading government agency on environmental
issues. DLSE mandate under the Environmental Legislation Review (1993) for the NEMS (1993), includes
"sustainable management of environmental resources" and the promotion of "environmental awareness" among
the public. Other Government Departments such as Education, Health, Samoa Visitors Bureau, Water Authority
and Agriculture also pursue environmental awareness activities in collaboration with DLSE.
There are also a number of non-government organizations with an interest in environmental stewardship who
work both independently and in collaboration
with DLSE. These include 0 le Siosiomaga
Society, Faasao Savaii, Eco-Tour Samoa, and
the YMCA.
Some of the activities of these organizations
are funded by the government andlor inter-
government organizations1IGOs such as the
United States Peace Corps, AusAID, NZODA,
South Pacific Regional Environment
Programme (SPREP), and the UNDP.
Although youth today are aware of the
importance of preserving the environment, and
much credit goes to the efforts of the many
advocacy organizations involved, there are
clear indications that understanding of the Samoa, like other small island nations, has a fragile envixonment
issues and the implementing of necessary
remedial measures do not automatically follow. For example, villagers, including youth, are aware that fishing
resources are declining and that the main cause is destructive fishing practices. Yet there is evidence that some
are still engaging in those practices despite the level of public awareness that exists. Similar situations exist in
relation to forestry, coral reefs, and water management. This indicates that there are underlying factors, whether
economic, social or political, that need to be addressed if environmental programmes are to be more effective.
Conservation Areas and Reserves
A number of conservation areas and reserves have
been established in Samoa as shown in Figure 2.5-1
on the next page.
A youth forum conducted by the Division of
Environment & Conservation (February 1998)
identified several environmental concerns for the
participants: water (marine and terrestrial), waste
disposal, threats to biological diversity, and resource
depletion caused by activities such as, logging, over
fishing, the use of destructive fishing methods, and
Where people throw their inorganic rubbish is of concern
coastal land reclamation.

Figure 2.5-1 : Gonservatian Areas and Reserves in Samoa
Cuashl totest
Lnwiand forgst
- t13rest
Disturbed veget~41t~n
No n-n &ive e co s y st,^ t-n
Palolo Deep Manne Reser*
Scenic Reserve L1
Pa* c
TogiWgigaReerez\\ricn Reserve
About 70% of the population have access to water drawn from surface resources and an estimated 90-9576 of the
population have access to a piped water supply (NEMS: 1993). However the yields of rivers and streams are
decreasing as a result of degradation of the watershed, through the extensive clearing of land for agriculture. The
dumping of solid waste into the same catchment areas also aggravates the situation. The result is reduced water
resource and poor water quality to local consumers. The coastal lagoons are also being subjected to industrial
and domestic pollution. Deforestation has increased the incidence of soil and nutrients being washed to the sea
(NEMS1993: 32). The continuing deveIopments around water catchment areas and the discharge of domestic
pollution and other waste is a major problem.
Waste Dispo,sal
As one study pointed out, "The insufficient care given to the disposal of human and other waste materials, is
affecting national standards of environmental health quite visibly" (SSAHD, 1998). Youth concern in this area
focused mainly on waste accumulated from consumer consumption such as, plastic bottles, papers, sewerage,
tins and others. It was suggested by them that a waste separation at source could be one alternative of managing
solid waste. As well, proper disposal systems of hazardous waste accumulated by the agricultural, industrial and
medical sectors need to be established. The problem is
already evident in some low lying areas of Apia, where
groundwater is being polluted by effluent from many
of the sewage disposal facilities (SSAED, 1998). It
was also estimated in the 1989 Agricultural Consensus,
that 60% of households use agricultural chemicals
however there is no policy dealing with the resulting
Biological Diversity
The lack of awareness, respect and protection of
Samoa's environment is another issue which youth are
concerned about. These are mainly in the loss of native
and endemic plants species of Samoa especially those
with medicinal value. The loss of biological diversity

in Samoa is a serious concern. The protection and
conservation of land, and animal resources are affected
by the current rate of poor land management and
deforestation (Samoa Bio-diversity Project Document:
Resource Depletion
The current rate of forest depletion, about 3,000 ha
per year, is one of the highest clearance rates in the
world, and a cause for major concern. It could be
considered the most serious environmental issue facing
the country. The rates of depletion are similar on Savaii
and Upolu, but 40 per cent of clearing on Savaii is due
Rehabilaaiing the Environment
to logging while it is considerably less on Upolu (NEMS
1993: 7). Figure 2.5-2 shows the forest depletion in
Samoa over the period from 1954 to 1987.
Other Environmental Concerns
Also raised by youth is the destruction of the marine
environment from activities such as over-fishing,
the use of destructive fishing methods such as
dynamiting, and the continuous coastal land
reclamation for developments.
Youth expressed their interest in being more actively
involved in all environmentally related activities
both at the national and community level. One
youth concern is that they have little voice in the
village decision-making forums, where decisions
regarding the use of natural resources are made
(Division of Environment & Conservation meeting
Environment Competition 4997
for Youth Environment Program, February 1998).
Youth directors and the youth leaders also
expressed scepticism towards any type of youth environment program that would not directly offer money or
jobs to the youth as well as not providing direct funding for youth projects. (Division of Environment iYr
Conservation meeting for Youth Environment Program, February 1998).
Youth can play a key role in the conservation and preservation of our environment
Youth can actively participate in promoting environmental awareness programmes
Youth can become key managers of environmental resources
Youth need to build their capacity to take up current & future responsibilities for environmental actions
* Youth and the environment are inter-dependent and inter-related
~ g g g Non-forest
New forest
Figure 2.5-2' Changes in S a m o a Forest Cover- 1854-1 987

This Policy envisages youth enjoying an equitable share in cultural, recreational and sporting activities and aims
to provide a range of leisure options catering for diverse abilities and needs. Of particular interest are how
activities are organised, their value to youth and the community, their effects on well being, and ways of fostering
community support. The National Youth Policy also supports the development of talented youth for futures in
professions that include the creative arts and sports.
Youth need to be understood in all aspects of their lives and one area often neglected is youth pastimes. How
youth spend their leisure time can have a powerful influence on their lives, affecting other aspects such as health,
education, and employment. Recreational activities can serve as a positive motivational factor to dissuade youth
from participating in risky or anti-social types of behaviours. Pastimes are a significant part of a young person's
life both in terms of the time
spent and the resources
allocated to the activities.
Recreational activities are
not simply "play". While
every family and community
finds its own balance
between work and play, it is
not true that youth pastimes
are a waste of time. Youth
learn best when the
experience is fun, positive
and interactive. Sports are The wosid-famous Mani,) Warnoa chalieng~ng Japanese opponents, 10 June 2000 (Manu
fun, for
Samoa won 68-9)
competition, for socialising
within and between villages, and with increasing $t~fessionalism, as a career opportunity. Games and sports
played by children and youth provide them with maRy learning opportunities- intellectual, physical, social, and
moral. Pastimes can develop leadership skills, buiki teamwork and trust in one another. It teaches cooperation
and sharing, develops social skills, and provides youth with a sense of service to others- all skills required in
adulthood. In addition, sports build discipline, physical strength, stamina, balance and speed- all leading to greater
health. Samoans have long been known for their competitive nature in sporting competitions.Their natural athletic
prowess and physical strength have endeared them to the sporting public.
Examples of recent years have been
the performances of the
Samoa and the Manu Sina and the
success of individuals such as
Tagifano Soonalole (tennis), and
David Tua (boxing). These
achievements have raised the
standard of sports participation and
recognition of Samoans and Samoa
in regional and international
Nurturing the development of the
creative arts helps to stimulate a
person's ability to problem solve,
create new ideas, communicate
more effectively, and build
Volieyball ns a vet y pop~ilar sport in all v~ltages
confidence and self-esteem.

Creative arts are also forms of individual and social expression; of how Samoans perceive themselves and their
identity as Samoans in Samoa and in the wider international community. Young people with talent in the creative
arts can realise their potential with the right support and proper schooling. These fields of the expressive arts
include visual arts (two and three dimensional), music, dance, drama, literature, architecture, and film-making. In
the past quarter of a century, local and overseas Samoan artists have achieved regional and international recognition
in some of these fields. They include people like jazz singers, writers, film makers,artists, and poets.
Traditional leisure activities bring an aiga closer together -
oral traditions such as matematega a tupua (riddles),
tala tuu (legends) and tala faa-fagogo (stories and fables), and the passing down of genealogy (talaga gafa) are
all important to youth as they strengthen both the aiga and their identity as Samoans. Modern pastimes such as
television and video can have a powerful effect on youth, although not always leading to well-being. Reading is
not a strong national pastime amongst the youth, mainly because of a lack of published Samoan literature.
Serialised stories in newspapers are popular, such as the translations of English classics and modern fiction.
The community also enjoys the pastimes of young people. They are often entertained at sports events, by youth
choirs, dance and drama productions, and art exhibitions. This in turn raises the status of youth in the community.
By providing for and fostering positive leisure activities, the community is also developed and strengthened.
Formal and Informal Youth Pastimes
Youth pastimes can be categorised as organised (formally structured) or as spontaneous (loosely structured).
Loosely structured leisure activities are often learned from adults or older youth and include traditional games,
cooperative games and other leisure activities. Structured youth pastimes such as sporting, cultural, and musical
events, are organised by both government and non-government organisations (NGOs) at both national and local
levels. A major promoter of youth sports among the NGOs are the autalavou. There are also many clubs,
associations, and community-based organisations, such as the village aumaga and aualuma, providing young
people with sports and other leisure options.
Government, primarily through the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture, plays a significant role in the development
of sporting and cultural activities such as that experienced during National Youth Week, an annual event for
youth which includes sporting and cultural activities. Many businesses also cater to the recreational and social
needs of young people through fitness centres, art and music schools, martial arts training, video outlets, video
games, internet services and nightclubs. Most of these businesses are based in urban Apia, attracting both urban
and rural youth. The list of Youth Service Providers given in the Youth Profile section (page 43) identifies many
of the organisations and departments providing a variety pf recreational and sports activities.
Traditional sports were often
related to the preparation of
young men for combat and testing
for strength, agility, speed and
strategic thinking. Examples
included aigofie (club-fighting)
and taga ti'a (spear throwing).
While there is currently an effort
to revive some of the traditional
sports, most are no longer
practiced although they do live on
in the many proverbs still used in
oratory today.
The arrival of the missionaries and
the early colonial settlers played
a significant role in the
introduction of modern sports
into Samoa. Rugby, played by
staff of the New Zealand Colonial
Administration, found a receptive
audience among Samoans who
showed a natural talent for the
game. A rugby union was
established in 1914. English

cricket was also adopted and greatly modified lo its current form. Basketball was introduced in 1930 by American
Mormon missionaries.
In 1961, the Western Samoa Amateur Sports Federation was established as the focal point for all sporting
organisations operating in the country. It serves to develop and promote sports and organise participation in
national and international sporting competitions. The organisation plays an instrumental role in the coordination
of Samoa's involvement in international sporting events.
Regional and International Games
The South Pacific Games was established through an agreement of Pacific Island Countries in 1961 to create
bonds of friendship and promote amateur sports in the region. The first South Pacific Games was held in 1963 in
Suva, Fiji, and a team of Samoan athletes participated, winning a silver medal and two (2) bronze medals. During
the Sixth South Pacific Games in Suva, Fiji (1979), Western Samoa won the bid to host the Seventh (7th) South
Pacific Games (1983) and Government built a new sporting complex for this purpose with aid from the Chinese
Apart from a few exceptions, Samoa has continued to participate in the South Pacific Games with noticeable
achievements by the young people of Samoa especially in the fields of boxing and weightlifting. The exceptions
were the boycott of the games in 1987 (New Caledonia) and 1995 (Tahiti) due to the Kanak people's uprising in
New Caledonia and the French nuclear testing on Mururoa Atoll.
The year 1974 marked yet another milestone for the development of sports with the participation of Samoa in the
Commonwealth Games. It served to propel Samoa's best athletes into the arena of international competition. The
subsequent gains in recognition and economic benefit to both the athlete and Samoa has resulted in greater
support by government for the development of sports.
The expanding pool of professional athletes has changed the way sports is viewed in Samoa assisted greatly by
the televising of games and players. Becoming a star athlete is now an aspiration of many youth and is seen to be
the road to a more prosperous future.
The general public's knowledge and interest in sports has increased with live coverage of games. Sports
organisations in collaboration with the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture and the Ministry of Education have
furthered this development by sponsoring coaching workshops, competitions, and other initiatives.
In 1983, a National Olympic Committee (NOC) for Samoa was established to coordinate activities for Olympic
Sports being played in the country and more importantly to be affiliated in the International Olympic Committee
(IOC). This enabled Samoa to participate the following year (1984), for the first time, in the Olympic Games in
Los Angeles (USA). Today, Samoa's National Olympic Committee is combined with the Samoa Sports Federation
to develop and promote both contemporary and traditional sports. The organisation is continuing to grow in
membership as more new sports are being introduced through IOC's programs. Table 2.6-1 gives the current list
of 35 sporting associations registered with the Samoa Sports Federation and National Olympic Committee

Ministry of Youth, Sports and Cultural Affairs
In 1976, the Act for Youth, Sports and Cultural Affairs was passed by Parliament to make provisions for matters 0
relating to youth, sports and cultural affairs, and to establish a Council for Youth, Sports and Cultural Affairs.
The general functions of the Council included:
1. To promote the development ofSamoan youth, sporh and cultural affairs,
2. To advise government on youth, sports and cultural affairs
3. To disseminate knowledge and information concerning youth, sports and cultural affairs.
In 1983, the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Cultural Affairs (MYSCA) was established to take over the functions
of the Council and to host the Seventh (7th) South Pacific Games in Samoa.
In collaboration with MYSCA, the Western Samoa Amateur Sports Federation and National Olympic Committee
have been able to host major international championships for various sports as well as run training programs with
funding from the IOC and ONOC (Oceania National Olympic Committee). In 1994, MYSCA initiated the first
All Samoa Games as a national sporting event bringing together th e sportsmen and sportswomen of the nation.
The 'Samoa Games' has been held every two years since it was established and was repeated in 1995 when
Samoa boycotted the South Pacific Games in Tahiti due to the nuclear testing in that country. Initially only
Samoan athletes participated. By the third Samoa Games in 1997, nineteen (19) other countries were able to
participate with a total of over 1,500 athletes who competed in some twenty-four (24) different sports events.
Table 2.6-2 lists some of the sports development programmes that involved MYSCA working in collaboration
with the (Western) Samoa Sports
Federation and the National
Olympic Committee during 1996
and 1997.
Sports andRecreational Facilities
Sports and recreational facilities
have been established and managed
by NGO's, businesses and
government. Some villages and
churches have also built recreational
facilities to cater to the recreational
needs of both youth and adults.
Most villages have a multi-purpose
field in the center of the village,
traditionallv known as a malae
(village green), used also for playing
The Musika Extravaganxa is now an annual event to showcase local talent
For several years, the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), a non-governmental organisation ran a
"Drop-In Center", where 20-25 youth would stop in daily to 8:00 pm (except Saturday and Sunday), to play
table tennis, billiards, weightlift, listen to music, meet with friends and speak with peer or adult counselors as
desired. In the last 15 years over six gyms have opened, Q ring fitness training, aerobics, weightlifting and yoga,
for Samoa's increasingly health conscious population.
The construction of sports fields in communities to comply with international standards is an initiative of government
to ensure that rural athletes may successfully compete in ~stional
and international competitions. A multi-purpose
sports complex is also currently under construction by government with some international assistance. The complex
is being built to host major international competitions such as the Commonwealth Games, as well as to train
Samoan athletes to be competitive in the top circles of world sports. Not yet fully funded and expected to take
years to become fully operational, the commitment is substantial. Over 300 acres have been dedicated to the
project. The types of facilities being planned include a gymnasium, a golf course, various sports fields, a multi
purpose center for training, swimming pools, a Youth Center, and MYSCA offices.
Creative Arts
VISUAL ARTS: There are currently several private art studios and schools in existence. One of the oldest is the
hulurnoega Fou School of Fine Arts established in 1987 by Italian artist and teacher Ernesto Coter within the
Christian Congregational Church Education System. The school provides a rigorous training program for talented
and disciplined secondary school students who have already completed Year 11. Youth are trained in drawing,
< , L"?- ~ ~ i ~ j
f&%~f~~;- <
'dc ~
T L ~
J ~ J ~
jQ\\t>j3 ? srsLbB\\;rj[
1 [ I s A f b 4 ( * A
sPifiCb kjP\\;ji["jNAj., i[-:!jT;/-j Pt2~_
c y *$l/i.

painting, mosaic, stainglass making, ceramics, and metal and wood sculptures. Those who successfully complete
the three-year program earn a diploma which is recognized by art programs in some universities in Australia and
New Zealand.
Of the 60 graduates who have completed their course of study with the school, many are employed as art
teachers in both mission and government schools. Others have earned reputations internationally and in the
Pacific as accomplished artists in their own right. Over the years, the school has kept an impressive collection of
the best of its two and three dimensional art. The Christian Congregational Church is considering building an art
exhibition center for the collection.
Other Samoan artists have opened studios to produce and exhibit their art work as well as to teach young people.
They include Momoe Von Riche (Madd Gallery), Pa alii Penehuro Taimalelagi (Beautiful Expressions of Nature
School of Fine Arts ), and Galumalemana Steven a ~ & d
Wendy Percival (Tiapapata Art Center). Papalii's studio
and schoob has a current recruitment of 26 students; d l males.
Many public and private schools offer visual arts as 8tt of their curriculum in contrast to drama and music which
is generally not offered as a graded course.
The Faculty of Education at the National University of Samoa provides training for primary and secondary
school teachers in visual art and music. It also offers a course in physical education which includes sports, games,
movement and dance.
MUSIC: Every festive occasion in this country whether it be a family, a church, a village, or a national function is
not without its musical component. The range of music available to a listening and singing public is impressive as
evidenced in the daily offerings of its two most popular radio stations: 2AP and Magic FM. In a short span of
time, the listener may be entertained by a traditional pre-Christian era chant, an Elvis Presley song, a Christian
revival hymn, and a jazz piece followed by the latest rap.
Choirs are very popular with churches and some schools. Bands (e.g.marching brass bands, string bands), are
another popular musical form. They are often voluntary, and organised and supported by villages, churches,
schools and youth clubs.
The Samoa School of Music and the June Ryan School of Music are two of the better known music schools in
Samoa catering to scores of students of all ages. Both provide their students with a sound background in music
theory as well as training in piano and other musical instruments. The Samoa School of Music supports a marching
brass band and has performed one of its own operas based upon a traditional theme (Malietoa Faiga). Both
schools offer assistance to church and village choirs on subjects ranging from the arrangement and composition
of music, to conducting and voice training, and concert performance.
The Samoa School of Music was founded in 1976 by Seiuli
Fuamatu Titi Grey Manuleleua, a trained opera singer, and
provides a certificated music course in affiliation with the
Australian Music Examination Board. Over the past five
years, several hundred students have taken the examination.
The school caters to 150 students, mostly school leaven,
ages 18 to 23. Students seeking employment in the field of
music often continue to take the more advanced levels.
Samoa has produced some excellent writers
(poets, playwrights, and novelists) writing in fiction and non-
fiction and publishing books both in Samoan and in English,.
There are a few organised writers groups in Apia. One such
group, Evaitusi, was established in 1998 to help local writers
publish children's books. Seven of their books have already
been published and utilized by the Department of Education.
There is fairly limited support for talented young writers in
Samoa. Youth interested in this field will usually obtain some
exposure through their English courses.
Costs, particularly, the printing costs are always a limiting
factor in publishing any literary work. Without support, it
may take years for a writer to put their books into print. Few
serious writers have been able to sustain themselves through
their writing; mostly by appealing to markets overseas.
DANCE AND DRAMA: Naturally inclined to perform, villages,

schools, and church youth groups will often entertain with dances and plays suited to a range of occasions. The
traditional drama form is called "Fale Aitu" and is mostly for the purpose of providing comic relief. Many
villages sport players adept at entertaining with FaleAitu. At a national level, the Teuila Festival, provides an
opportunity for Samoa to entertain the public with the best of its performing artists. Autalavou often provide
dramatisations of Bible stories.
The faafafine community prefer to entertain with a more contemporary flair as demonstrated by their colourful
Tutti Fruitti Pageant and other fundraising pageants for social causes. The Loto Taumafai School for the physically
challenged also supports a performing arts hearing impaired theatrical group know as the Silent World Theatre.
This talented group is quite active and has performed both locally and overseas.
More formal training in the performing arts, however, is quite limited. Public and mission schools rarely, if ever,
include dance, drama or even music as a core
subject. However students themselves are quite
talented and creative as shown in various festivities
which allows these forms of expression within a
school context.
A private school was recently established to help
fill the gap. Known as the School for Performing
Arts and Tourism it aims to provide young people
with training in the performing arts. Last year a
number of its students completed their studies and
graduated with diplomas.
TRADITIONAL A R T S : The faa-Samoa customs,
traditions and material crafts are a valuable part of
the country's rich cultural heritage. Chiefly oratory
and the presentation of fine mats are important
components any traditional ceremonial occasion.
Youth giavina video qarnes
. . -
Most villages, churches and schools will train a
performing cultural group for the purpose of raising funds, and representing the institution at community, national
and even international events.
Training in the traditional arts, to varying degrees, is provided by public, mission and private schools. With a view
to potential employment creation, the Methodist Vocational and Creative Center (Punaoa), Papauta Girls School
and, Loto Taumafai, a private school for the physically challenged, in particular, offer training in the traditional
arts and crafts (eg. weaving, carving, tapa making). Various courses in Samoan are being offered at the National
University of Samoa and at AMOSA, a private school catering to the working population.
Government departments and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO's) are also involved in training youth in
the traditional arts for the promotion of traditional culture as well as for the generation of employment. The
Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture has run carving workshops. The Ministry of Women's Affairs provides
women, including young women, with training in handicrafts. Women in Business Foundation includes young
women in its fine mat weaving scheme. The National Council of Women offers training in traditional dance.
Trends in Leisure Activities
The global village is having a significant impact on the tastes and interests of young consumers. Computers and
the internet cafe are becoming well frequented centers for young urbanities. Videos and T.V.s are almost common
place in villages as more and more families are owning their own sets. These developments are changing the way
young people are spending their time and along with the good that technical innovations bring to the society are
some concerns.
Problems Associated with more Sedentary Activities
Like their counterparts in the West, Samoan youth can spend hours in front of a television set. Lack of exercise
to work off excess calories can lead to early stages of obesity already identified as a problem among youth.
Less Time for Quality Social and Family Interactions
Evenings, after all the chores are done for the day, is often the time for time to share among family members. It
is also where grandparents are most likely to impart information on the families oral history and stories of the
past. When a television set dominates the evening, much of this information is not passed on.

Diminished Opportunities for Unique Community Development
While Western influences are not all negative, when it diminishes opportunities for a community to develop its
own unique expressions, one's own culture increasingly mimics another. The lyrics of a song may be in Samoan
but the tune is distinctly country western USA, reggae, rap, or Evangelical.
What is being promoted as being traditional Samoan dance and music sometimes looks and sounds like something
from another part of the Pacific. Much more effort is needed to document, record, and teach the traditional art
forms in order to preserve their authenticity. Without this, young people will not able to learn what is unique
among the different traditional Pacific cultures including its own.
Similarly with contemporary art forms, a youth can be singing a Country Western song or playing rap music with
little understanding of what part of the world it came from, the culture it represents, and the evolution of the art
form. There is little formal education in this regard.
Losses to Distinct Samoan Cultural Oral Traditions
Because Samoa is moving away from being an oral culture, unless there is a concerted effort to record, preserve,
and teach its oral histories, genealogies and traditions from one generation to the next, much will be lost. Youth
then will not have the benefit of appreciating their culture.
As more English is substituted or Samoanized in speech, there is a subtle shift towards adopting perspectives and
values that are more Westernized (e.g. more individualistic and
consumer-oriented). The concern is that young people may become
marginalised in both languages, resulting in communications that can
be shallow, superficial and devoid of richness, history and poetry.
Lack of Support for the Arts
Samoan youth have a natural tendency to perform and entertain, yet
there is no adequate facility at the national level for the performing
arts. Like sports facilities, access to good performing arts facilities
can have a significant impact on the further development of talented
youth in these areas. A performing arts center could also provide a
means for Samoans to view high quality performances and authentic
cultural forms from other parts of the world. Similarly, although there
are many beautiful works of art in Samoa, there is no adequate facility
for the exhibition of the visual arts at a national level. There is a need
to revive open air koneseti (concert) as an option.
Changing Nature of Sports
The rise of the professional athlete has affected how sports is being
viewed and supported in the country. The previously amateur and
volunteer-oriented sports activities of the past is diminishing in The Teuila Festival, an annual cultural event
significance. The concern with this trend is that sports, as a means of
positive social interaction between communities and youth groups, as well as the enjoyment of the game for
recreational purposes, leisure and health, also diminishes. Sports, instead, becomes a spectator event with
sponsorships, sports advertising and prize money being viewed as essential without which games cannot be
effectively organised. There is a need to establish a balance between past interaction and modern commercial
infilterations which have inevitably come about.
Supervision, guidance and understanding is needed from adults in support of youth and in the provision of
pastimes. The lack of this support can result in youth engaging in pastimes that could put them at risk. With
increased accessibility to drugs, alcohol, and even guns a (growing problem with young men in particular,) the
need for positive, social outlets is critical.
Media Addiction
Television, computer websites, videos, CD7s,
particularly the viewing of sexually explicit and violent images can
negatively affect a young person's development. There is a lack of parenting education in this regard. Public
awareness of appropriate viewing material for young people, vigilance that videos are being properly coded for
easy identification by parents and youth, and providing healthy alternatives to these types of pastimes can be
beneficial. Literacy is also a crucial issue. Not only must literacy rates be improved and sustained, but also
published in both Samoan and English. Quality writing must be promoted in newspapers and literary publications.
An informed reading public needs access to quality reading materials.
\\ i *
i,$IT,t+ r- , , & ~ i l Y ~ j4o :
i zpt:,&C,d [,l';'{tr3ij
: ".,!+&
% If-
2, &?:jp\\
ilCta\\;*:+i_ Vc,C 7 yf F1:'~_?L,t ,2012 1 z-)?

The Key Priority Area ends with Youth Pastimes as a reminder that healthy play is so important to youth and
community at large. Play is what helps people see the lighter side so they are not so overwhelmed with daily
problems and concerns. It brings people together in a positive and uplifting way and provides a means to
appreciate talent and ability. The ability to play is an important asset to nurture and support in youth. The
assets that youth possess, however, are not limited to their talents in sports and in creative artistic expression.
Youth have great potential to apply their energy, skills, talent and natural intelligence to their own
development as well as to serve their community.
In the process of listening to people talk about youth, many problems and issues were identified as needing to
be addressed by Samoa's National Youth Policy. Eater, solutions and strategies were discussed by youth
stakeholders leading to the adoption of Policy Statements. In the months and years ahead, the focus of
National Youth Policy stakeholders will be shifting to developing action plans needed to implement the
policy. For youth stakeholders and the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture, the process of putting together
the Policy has had the additional benefit of strengthening partnerships and finding areas of mutual support
and collaboration.
This is also an exciting time for young people in Samoa. It is anticipated that the seeds being planted today,
through the adoption and acceptance of the National Youth Policy by the Samoa government and
people, will open up many more windows of opportunity for them. There is also increasing recognition that
progress also means that youth, both males afid females, will need to have more of a voice in all aspects of
community life. That they are to be included in planning and decision-making processes, and valued for who
they are and what they can contribute both to their own well-being and that of their community.

Annual Statistical Abstract 1998, Department of Statistics, Government of Samoa
Census of Agriculture 1999 (Preliminary Report), Statistics Department
Census of Population and Housing, 1991 Report, Statistics Department
Children & Women in Western Samoa - a Situation Analysis, 1996, T. Afamasaga, Government of Western
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Adopted by the United
Nations General Assembly in 1979.
Convention on the Rights of the Child Country Report for Samoa, 1999 Draft
Convention on the Rights of the Child, Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly 20 November 1989
Demographic and Health Survey 1999, Statistics Department
Department of Health Annual Report, 1995 and 1996, Department of Health
Domestic and Sexual Violence Against Women in Western Samoa, A Study, 1996, Mapusaga o Aiga
Education Department Policies, 1992 (for the teaching profession), Education Department
Employment and Income Generation in Rural Western Samoa, February 1992, Employment Promotion,
Manpower Planning and Labor Administration in the Pacific, ILO/UNDP/AIDAB
Employment in Western Samoa, Present and Potential, February 1992, Employment Promotion, Manpower
Planning and Labor Administration in the Pacific, ILO/UNDP,AIDAB
Enhancing Post-School Learning Opportunities: Planning at the School / Post-School Divide, Alan Male,
Samoa Secondary School Curriculum and Resources Project, Department of Education
Fanau ma Aiga Manuia Strategy, July 2000 Draft, Department of Health
Formulating and Implementing National Youth Policies, June 1996, Commonwealth Youth Programme,
Commonwealth Secretariat.
Household Income and Expenditure Survey, 1997, Statistics Department
Justice Department Corporate Plan 2000-2002, Justice Department
Mental Health and Substance Abuse, WHO 1995 Mission Report, Dr. Anthony Williams
Ministry of Women's Affairs Corporate Plan 2000-2001, Ministry of Women's Affairs
inistry of Youth, Sports and Cultural Affairs Corporate Plan 2000-2003, Ministry of Youth, Sports &
Cultural Affairs
National Food and Nutrition Policy for Western Samoa, 1995, National Food and Nutrition Council
National University of Samoa Strategic Plan 2000-2004, March 1999, National University of Samoa
Partnership for a Prosperous Society ,
Statement of Economic Strategy 2000-2001, Government of Samoa
Partnerships in Wealth, Health Sector Strategic Plan 1998-2003, Department of Health
Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems in the Pacific, WHO 1995 Mission Report, Mr David McDonald
Report of the Committee on the Rehabilitation Centre for Young Offenders, 1997, Justice Department
Report on the Apia Urban Youth Survey 1994, Department of Statistics/Ministry of Youth, Sports & Cultural
Report on the Status of Women in Samoa 1992-1997, Ministry of Women's Affairs
Research on Existing Situation of Malnutrition in Samoa, March 1997, Dr. J. Adams & Ms B Sio
Samoa Health Sector Review; Meeting the Challenges of Development, October 1998, Health, Nutrition
and Population Unit, World Bank.
ulation Policy, 1998 Draft, Population Council Technical Committee
Samoa Secondary School Curriculium Overview Document, July 1998, Department of Education
Samoa: A Situation Analysis of Human Development, November 1998. UNDP
Samoa: Strategy for Growth & Diversification of the Agriculture Sector,1997-2000, Kolone Vaai &
Sectoral Planning Manual, October 1999, Treasury Department , Government of Samoa
The Family in a World Community, Baha'i International Community United Nations Office, November 1993
estern Samoa Education Policies 1995-2005, Western Samoa Policy and Planning Development Project
Western Samoa Education Strategies 1895-2005, Western Samoa Policy and Planning Development Project
Western Samoa Family Health Association Strategic Plan, 1996
Women and Men in
stem Samoa - A Statistical sofile, November 1993, Ministry of Women's Affairs
- L - j
.j:% Pi."
I s / j t t _ :3 g 6 * : jri&Ti\\ (:r ; Ci ;i,'t;:f 8;.
a \\
..( -

r t ~ h _ i
4 4 2-3~j[_1c-
' 2 ~ ; < D

Commonwealth Youth
Minister's Meeting
Youth Programme
Port of Spain, Trinidad & Tobago
Ministry of Youth, Sports and
Cultural Affairs (MYSCA)
National Youth Policy
Development Committee (NYPDC)
National Youth Policy
Coordinating Committee (NYPCC)
Regional Advisor
1 Sub-committees I / Adhoc Committee 1
Samoa National Youth
Policy 2001-2010

Table 1.3-1 Religious
199 1 Census and
Ezble 1.4- 1: Total Number of Brides and Grootm by Youth Age Category, 1994- 1996'
Age Category
1998 TOTAL
15-19 Brides
15-19 Grooms
20-24 Brides
297 1,677
20-24 Grooms
25-29 Brides
277 1,269
25-29 Grooms
294 1,489
1,112 5,762
Legislators, Senior Officials, ~ a n a g e r s l
Technicians and Associate Professionals1
Service Workers and Shop & Market Sales Workers
Smed Agricultural & Fisheries Workers
Craft and Related Trades Workers,
Plant and Machine Operators and Assemblers
Elementary Occupations
Not Stated
Full-time paid employment
Part-time paid employment

Table 1.6-3: Level of Educational Attainmalt for Population 15 years and
Over as recorded ~n 1999 D e m o ~ r a n h r
arzd Healtlz Survey
6031 69.3%
5929 73.4%
Never Attended School
Table 1.6-4: Popdation 15 years arzdover who recerved
Teacher Training
I Nursing School
i Polytechnic
Theological College
Not Stated
Total receiving further training
1298 14.9%
1115 13.8%
Population 15 years and over
Tublc 1.6-5: Public Service Cnmmissioa Employment
Data (February 2000)
18-29 years Male - F
!Youth employed in Public Sector (%)
I ~ i ~ h e s t
Youth Salary
1 ~ e d i a n Salary
\\Average Youth Salaries

Table 1.8-2 Youth (12-29 yeurs) Suicide Attempts
and Deaths by Method:lY88-99
5 or more You
/SOIJRCE: T u ~ u a
Tarnasese Meaole Hos~ital
Medical Records/
Tabic 1.8-4: Yiurzg Persons Sentenced to
krrsorl bv I3Jfeptce und Year (1995-1998)
ex-related offences
Table 1.8-5: Youth who had tried srrzoking, alcohol or splrit~
Tahk 1.8-6: 10-79 vear old youria who had tried smoking alcohol or spirit5 and
marqliarra, by broad occ~pztton
atld g e n d ~ r

Tuble 1.8-7: Eslirnared School L k o p - 0 ~ 1 t ~
by Level for 1995-99
Aana # 1
Faasaleleaga #1
Itu o Tane #2
Table 1.8-9: Percentage uf Hoz~seizolds,
by Region.
with ~ s t c a l I ~ ~ / M e n t a l f y
Disubled Persons (1991)
Apia Urban Area
4,465 i
Northwest Upolu
Rest of Upolu
Total for Samoa
6% 20,790 22,195

Have not had sexual intercourse
j ~ o t
1 110 3%
61 3%1
34 2%
40 4%
18 3%!
21 4%
6 4
Number of Schools
Govt. Non-Govt LEVEL
Teachers Pupils
P.T. Ratio
159 Primary
Years 1-8
1,436 35,790
24 Junior Secondary
Years 9-11
21 Senior Secondary
Years 9-13


Either University Tertiary Institutions:
$repatory Year
The National University of Samoa
(if selected)
(includes Teaching and Nursing)
The University of the South Pacific
(Campus and Extension Centre)
The Samoa Polytechnic (includes Marine Training)
Or directly to other
tertiary or vocational
Don Bosco Technical Centre
Eurphraise Barber
Methodist Technical & Creative Centre
overseas options,
Leulumoeaa Fou School o f Fine Arts
ether privately or
Special Needs Education:
under One of
Lon, Taumafai (for physically disabled)
Fia Malamalama (for intellectually handicapped)
- -
Senese (integrating learning-impaired & normal)
Table 2.2-2: Selected SCIKXII
Fees for 20110 (&li year uidess staled otherwtsc
State Schools:
Vaipouli College
N/ A
Samoa College
N/ A
Avele College
N/ A
Leifiifi College
Mission Schools:
Methodist Schools
Independent Schools:
Vaiala Beach School
N/ A
RLS School
' Most schools setfees less than $10.00 per term
"used on Term One fees iiauliplied by four terms (excludes book fees)
Does not include building fund which is a once only $400.00 per family

'Ihble 2.2-3: Average
Table 2.2-4: Estrmated Direct Experzditure
Transition Rate over
(1999-2000) at C~overrzrnent
Colleges and
tile 1995-1 999 period
Junior Secondarv Sclzools
Y8 to Y9
Tnbk 2.3-1: Workers and Average Weekly Wage in the Public aid Private Sectors by
Gender (7998 Lubottr Marker Demand Survey)
, Permament (salaried)
1 Temporary (casual)
1 Total
Table 2.3-2: Total Employed Persom Contvibtiting to the NPF by Ifadustry (1994-1999)
/ Public administration
i Other manufacturing
/ Transporticommunication
/ Other services
/ Education
1 Commerce
Finance and business services
Agriculture and fshing
Food manufacturing
/ Personal services
/ Construction
/ Electricity and water
Ail industries
Table 2.3-3: Youth 110-29 vears) bv firll-time activiw and sex
I "Neither"
SOURCE: 1994
7kble 2.4-1: Persons Sen fenred io
Prison (1997-1998) by hmrrdAge
Group and Gei.zdei
I Female (16-29)
/ Youth (16-29)
1 Male 30+
/ Female 30+
0 1
/ Adults 30+
3 1
39 1
j Total
101 /

n b l e 2.4-2: Persons Pkaced under r crimes
~ o t a l /
Probat~on (PY95-1998) by broad
Age Group afrd Gcndcr
Male (16-29)
3 1
Female (16-29)
1 Youth (16-29)
/ Male 30+
9 % \\
Female 30+
Adults 30+
To Val
Table 2.4-3: P ~ s o n s
Srnfencedro j Crimes
~ o t a l l
% j
Prison and Placed under
7 1
Probatmn (1V9.5- 1998) by broad
1 2 7
Age b'raup and Getldo
1 Youth (16-29)
1 Male 30+
7 1
45 1
Female 30+
l % i
Adults 30+
45 j
jrabie 2.4-4: Persons Sentamed to P T ~ S O I E
(1905-1988) by Address a d Place of
M anono
74% 190 79%
No Address given
13% 32 13%
Total Offences
IPhble 2.6-1: Sport-li~~g
Registered w ~ t h
the Samoa Amatcur
Sports Federation and Nattolzal Qlymplc Commzftw- 1998
1 Archery
10 Golf
19 Paralympics
28 Table Tennis
1 2 Athletics
11 Handball
20 Powerlifting
29 Tai Kwon Do
1 3 Badminton
12 Hockey
21 Rugby League
30 Touch Rugby
1 4 Baseball
13 Judo
22 Rugby Union
31 Triathlon
5 Basketball
14 Kirikiti Samoa
23 SARFA (Australian Rules) 32 Volleyball
1 6 Body Building 15 Lawn Bowling 24 Shooting
33 Weightlifting
1 7Boxhg
16 Lawn Tennis
25 Soccer
34 Wrestling
! 8 Canoeing
17 Martial Arts
26 Softball
35 Yachting
/ 9 Cycling
18 Netball
27 Squash
Sports Development Programmes (1996-1997)
Fiafia Sports - Primary Schools Development
Diploma for Wucation in Physical Education - MYSCAINUS
Rural Secondary Schools Sports Competitions
Community Programmes - Coaching Clinics
Willing and Able Sports - Handicapped Children
Olympic Solidarity Courses - Promotional Programmes for various Olympic Sports
Sports Club Support Programme
Sports Injuries Compensation Scheme
Sports Programme for the National Youth Week
Samoa Games
Financial Assistance for Touring Sports Teams
Hosting of International Championships
Organisation of Church Youth Groups Sporting Competitions
Preparation of Samoa's Paralympics Team

   © 2006, USP Library. Copyright & Disclaimer                         Contact Us
last updated Sat Sep 01, 2012