24th December 2003.

Ms Edna Tait
Director, UNESCO Office for the Pacific States
PO Box 615, Apia, Samoa.


Dear Edna,

RE: Activity-Financing Contract no. 03/108 with the Vanuatu Kaljoral Senta
(Vanuatu Cultural Centre):
The UNESCO-LINKS, Ministry of Education, Environment Unit and Vanuatu Cultural
Centre project: "Strengthening indigenous knowledge and traditional resource
management through schools: A pilot partnership involving local communities, teachers,
resource managers and culture specialists": Brainstorming Workshop (December 2004)

In fulfillment of our obligations under this contract, please find following the following
documents which constitute the report of the "brainstorming workshop":

a) the Plan of Action for bringing indigenous knowledge (IK) into the science
curriculum (pp.2-3);
b) the Plan of Action Time Table for Implementation and Designation of Agencies
Responsible (pp.4-5);
c) the Participants List of the workshop (pg.6);
d) the Workshop Agenda (pp.7-8);
e) the Workshop Proceedings (Notes) (pp.9-20);
f) the Financial Report (pp.21-22).

All original receipts supporting the Financial Statement have already been sent in the
mail to you.


Yours sincerely,



Ralph Regenvanu
Director, Vanuatu Cultural Centre.

Plan of Action for bringing indigenous knowledge (IK) into the science curriculum

As part of the Rethinking Vanuatu Education initiative, a UNESCO-sponsored brainstorming
workshop was held at the Vanuatu Cultural Centre from the 1st until the 4th of December 2003.
Participants included representatives from the Ministry of Education (MoE), the Vanuatu Cultural
Centre (VKS), the Environment Unit (Env.Unit), Centre National de Recherche Scientifique
(CNRS) and the UNESCO project “Local and Indigenous Knowledge Systems in a Global
Society” (LINKS), who elaborated the following Plan of Action for bringing indigenous
knowledge into the science education curriculum:


Awareness-raising
OBJECTIVE: To gain support for this initiative, particularly among decision makers, parents,
communities and teachers, by raising awareness as to its rationale and benefits
ACTIVITIES:
1. Radio programs – for the MoE, VKS, and Env.Unit weekly programs
2. Newspaper articles - written jointly by project partners
3. Information meetings with Malvatumauri, VNCW and other stakeholders
4. Information meetings within the education sector (principal’s meetings, ZCA
meetings, private and church schools, etc)
5. Launch national school competition promoting IK
6. LINKS posters on value of IK to be produced in Bislama and distributed through
MoE, VKS, and Env.Unit
7. Distribution of Tree of Opportunity and Rethinking Vanuatu Education report to all
schools

Endorsement of project by NEC (National Education Commission)
OBJECTIVE: To gain official MoE and Government support for and endorsement of this
initiative

Evaluation of existing programs that include IK (lessons learnt)
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate existing initiatives that already include IK in the school syllabus to
learn from their strengths and weaknesses
ACTIVITIES:
1. Identify schools that already use IK in the classroom (including year 1 vernacular classes)
2. Prepare introductory letter and questionnaire and distribute through MoE network to
these schools and their communities (separate questionnaires for community
members/parents, teachers and students)
3. Analyze feedback from questionnaires
4. Visit selected schools, if needed
5. Evaluate CAPS (Community and Parent Support for Schools) program, assess strengths
and weaknesses, begin revision towards developing a teacher training package in
facilitating community involvement in education


2

Encourage student enquiry into IK in their own communities (primary level)
OBJECTIVE: To begin to break down the division between the classroom and community; to
foster an interactive relationship between the community and the school; to develop an attitude
among students, teachers and community members that encourages transmission of IK both in the
classroom and in the home; to encourage involvement of community members as educators
ACTIVITIES:
1. Get approval from NEC for the program:
- Develop concept paper that includes:
- Objectives, Background, Rationale
-
Strategy,
Methodology
-
Provide
examples
2. Produce an introductory pamphlet for teachers - to introduce the concept and its rationale
and which includes a list of sample activities and questions
3. Produce an interim instruction manual for this program which provides a methodology,
schedule and suggested list of activities and questions for each class level from class 1-8
- include collective and individual activities, for students to present daily
(individual research) and fortnightly or monthly (collective research)
- emphasis on oral presentations in local language
4. Seek funds for CDC to publish interim instruction leaflet and distribute through MoE
system

Collation of existing information / Production of guides
OBJECTIVE: To produce high quality materials to facilitate the use of IK in science class.
ACTIVITIES:
1. Appoint an Advisory Committee comprising all partners to oversee this work
2. LINKS and CNRS to identify people to start developing specific IK examples for
curriculum guides and to provide contracts to these researchers
3. A joint project profile to be submitted for funding of one full time researcher (local
science education specialist with good knowledge of Vanuatu) for two years based at
VKS to coordinate development of examples (modeled on National History Curriculum
Project) and production of teacher guides
4. MoE to provide full time local science education specialist to work on development of
examples and guides
5. Produce primary guide (detailed examples only for teachers guide)
6. Produce junior secondary guide

Teacher Training
OBJECTIVE: To provide teachers with the skills to be able use the knowledge and expertise of
community members (community facilitation skills)
ACTIVITIES:
1. In-service train-the-trainer programs for ZCAs and principals at a provincial level
2. Training to VKS fieldworkers at their annual workshops in Port Vila
3. In-service training for current teachers in both community facilitation and in how to
use the interim instruction manual as a part of the educational program
4. Assist communities in identifying resource persons
5. Insert new IK syllabus into VITE diploma and certificate programs
6. Ongoing evaluation of new program
7. Ongoing training in local language for local language primary teachers by the
community

3

Plan of Action for bringing indigenous knowledge (IK) into the science curriculum

Time Table for Implementation and Agencies Responsible (* = Lead agency)

Awareness-raising

Radio program
Begin December 2003 and
MoE*, VKS*, Env.Unit*
ongoing
Newspaper articles
Begin December 2003 and
MoE, VKS*, Env.Unit
ongoing
Information sessions: VNCW, VNCW General Conference
MoE, VKS*, Env.Unit
Malvatumauri and other
December 2003, ongoing for
stakeholders
other stakeholders
National school competition
Terms 1 and 2, 2004
MoE*, VKS, Env.Unit
Posters
March 2004
LINKS*, MoE, VKS,
Env.Unit
Tree of Opportunity and
End 2004
MoE
Rethinking Vanuatu Education
report

Endorsement of project by NEC (National Education Commission)
Target date: January 2004, MoE

Evaluation of existing programs that include IK (lessons learnt)

Identify schools that already
January 2004
MoE
incorporate IK in the
classroom (including
vernacular year 1 classes)
Prepare introductory letter and Draft circulated by end Feb.
MoE, ZCAs, principals
questionnaire and distribute
2004,
(in consultation with VKS,
Distribution in March 2004
Env.Unit, and LINKS)
Analyze feedback
June/July 2004
MoE*, VKS, Env.Unit,
LINKS, CNRS
Visits to selected schools
July/August 2004
MoE*
Develop CAPS evaluation
Draft circulated by Feb 2004,
MoE*, VKS, Env.Unit,
form
Finalised by end March 2004
LINKS
Evaluate CAPS
Evaluation forms circulated
MoE*, VKS, Env.Unit
from April 2004 with school
inspectors,
Forms returned by August,
Evaluation undertaken by end
October 2004


4

Encourage student enquiry into IK in their own communities

Develop concept paper for
Developed by April 2004,
VKS*, MoE, Env.Unit,
NEC endorsement
NEC endorsement by end of
CNRS, LINKS
term 1 (May)
Develop and distribute
By beginning of Term 2 2004
VKS*, MoE, Env.Unit,
introductory pamphlet
(June)
CNRS, LINKS
Produce interim instruction
For beginning of Term 2 2004 VKS*, MoE, Env.Unit,
manual: classes 1-8
(June)
CNRS, LINKS

Collation of existing information / Production of guides

Appoint Advisory Committee
March 2004
VKS*, MoE, Env.Unit,
LINKS
LINKS contracts start
April 2004
LINKS*, CNRS, MoE, VKS,
Env.Unit
Joint project to DESD
End May 2004
VKS*, MoE, Env.Unit
MoE to dedicate full-time
June/July 2004
MoE
person
Production of IK curriculum
Primary - end 2005
MoE*, VKS, Env.Unit,
guides
Secondary - end 2006
LINKS, CNRS

Teacher Training

**A detailed timetable and order of activities for teacher training will be developed by the
Advisory Committee to be established above.

In-service training for ZCAs,
MoE*,
VKS,
LINKS
and principals at provincial
level
Training for fieldworkers at
VKS*,
MoE
their annual workshop
In-service training for current
MoE*,
LINKS
teachers
Assist communities in

Teachers, fieldworkers and
identifying resource persons
communities
Insert new IK syllabus into
2006 MoE
VITE programs
Ongoing in-service training of Ongoing MoE
teachers
Ongoing evaluation of new
Ongoing MoE
program
Ongoing training in local
Ongoing MoE,
communities
language for local language
primary teachers by the
community


5

The UNESCO-LINKS, Ministry of Education, Environment Unit and Vanuatu
Cultural Centre project:


"Strengthening indigenous knowledge and traditional resource
management through schools: A pilot partnership involving local
communities, teachers, resource managers and culture
specialists"

* Brainstorming Workshop: 1st-4th December 2003 *

Participants list

Ministry of Education:
1) John Niroa (Acting Director, Secondary, Technical and Further
Education)
2) Kalmele Matai (Director, Vanuatu Institute of Education)
3) Lewani Iopa (Technology Teacher, Malapoa College)
4) Mackin Valia (Principal, Lamen High School)
5) Eileen Halakua (Science Teacher, Lycée Antoine de Bougainville)
6) Jack Daniels (Science Teacher, Vanuatu Institute of Teacher Education)
Vanuatu Cultural Centre:
7) Ralph Regenvanu (Director)
8) Francis Hickey (Coordinator, Traditional Marine Tenure Project)
9) Richard Leona (Fieldworker, ex-teacher)
10) Dennison Siaban (Fieldworker, ex-teacher)
11) Sara Lightner (Coordinator, National History Curriculum project)
Environment Unit:
12) Russel Nari (Deputy Director)
LINKS (Local and Indigenous Knowledge Systems in a Global Society)
13) Douglas Nakashima, Project Leader
14) Tim Curtis, Consultant
CNRS (Centre National de Recherche Scientifique)
15) Marie Roué, Director of Research
Other:
16) Jennifer Nicol, Translator


6

The UNESCO-LINKS, Ministry of Education, Environment Unit and Vanuatu
Cultural Centre project:


"Strengthening indigenous knowledge and traditional resource
management through schools: A pilot partnership involving local
communities, teachers, resource managers and culture
specialists"

* Brainstorming Workshop: 1st-4th December 2003 *

Workshop Agenda:

Monday 1/12

8.00-10.00:

Welcome - Ralph Regenvanu, Director, Vanuatu Cultural Centre

"Big picture" & workshop objectives : Presentations:
- John Niroa (Ministry of Education - MoE)
- Ralph Regenvanu (Vanuatu Cultural Centre - VKS)
- Russell Nari (Environment Unit)
- Douglas Nakashima / Tim Curtis (LINKS/UNESCO)

10.15-1200: Setting the Stage I : Presentations:
- Douglas Nakashima, LINKS:
"Indigenous Knowledge (IK): Scientific Knowledge – establishing a basis for an
equitable dialogue"
- Francis Hickey, Cultural Centre:
"Examples of possible IK units for science syllabus"

1-30-3.00:

Setting the Stage II : Presentations:
- Marie Roué (CNRS):
"Experiences from indigenous school systems in northern Canada: IK and
formal education"
- John Niroa (Ministry of Education):
"Overview of the existing national science curriculum"

3.15-5.00: Discussion

- Commentaries from Cultural Centre Fieldworkers and Science Teachers
(5-10 mins each)
- Brief discussion and adoption of agenda for following days

7

Tuesday 2/12

8.00-10.00: Discussion

of
issues
raised on the previous day
Including:
• what is and what is not science-related IK?
• how to balance between the many different cultures in Vanuatu?
• how to make science education relevant for those returning to their communities?
• practical / implementation issues (texts? pilot schools? how many? which years? what
kind of tools, techniques, etc…?)
• other issues…

10.15-12.00: Split into 2 groups
1) How to revise the science curriculum to include IK:

• approach required by Ministry of Education: order of actions, timeframe
• what materials required?
• what teacher training?
• home assignments: how to give credit to IK obtained at home?
• key partners, budget items (what funds are required for)?
2) What should the content be and what resources are available?:
• themes & topics for units: good case studies & examples to use, sources for these
• what written scientific material is available about Vanuatu - what materials we have
and where gaps are (where more research is needed)?
• how to use communities and community resource people

1.30-3.00:

Groups report back on morning session and discuss

3.15-5.00:

Conclusions of the day's discussions
• agreement on key issues
• ideas on a preliminary action plan

Wednesday 3/12:

8.00-10.00: Development of action plan

• establishment of schedule (timeline)
• development of estimated budget for project

10.15-12.00: Morning session continued

1.30-3.00:

Further discussion and refining of Action Plan

3.15-5.00:

Adoption of Action Plan

Thursday 4/12:

9.00-11.00: Closing ceremony, presentation of action plan and media release

8

The UNESCO-LINKS, Ministry of Education, Environment Unit and Vanuatu
Cultural Centre project: "Strengthening indigenous knowledge and traditional
resource management through schools: A pilot partnership involving local
communities, teachers, resource managers and culture specialists": Brainstorming
Workshop: 1st-4th December 2003

Workshop Proceedings (Notes):

Monday 1/12

“Big picture” and workshop objectives: Presentations:
- John Niroa (Ministry of Education - MoE):

• MOE realises that it cannot do everything, therefore it encourages partnerships
with other organisations to assist it in its work.
• This means that work will be spread out among different organisations and sectors
of society - education needs to be everyone’s business.
• The Vanuatu Cultural Centre (VKS) has taken up the challenge to push the MoE
along in this direction.
• The national curriculum needs to be up-to-date as well as meaningful. More
cooperation and working together is needed to ensure that what happens in school
reflects what students actually face in real life.
• What we are currently teaching ignores what we have grown up with; it ignores
the reality of our lives.
• In the last few years there has been a move in Pacific countries to re-assess the
results of the educational system - the system currently pushes out a lot of
children and leaves them with no alternatives.
• Children are made into something by the educational system that does not allow
them to go back to their communities.
• The University of the South Pacific (USP) Regional Education Colloquium in
2001 - Rethinking Pacific Education (The Tree of Opportunity) - brought together
senior educators from throughout the Pacific region, who resolved that the
education system should be rooted in our cultural heritage first. With this
grounding, it can then stretch out to absorb other sources.
• At the national Rethinking Vanuatu Education conference, people spoke out and
expressed their views about the importance of including language, culture, and
traditions in the school curriculum.
• Indigenous knowledge (IK) involving science is another part of the jigsaw that we
are fitting into the puzzle.
• IK is something that belongs to us – we are the experts – and therefore locals
(manples) must take the initiative in pushing this current project ahead. It is very
important that this project is developed by manples because we are the experts
and it is for our own benefit. Other organisations can assist us but they cannot do
it for us.
• We are rich in IK in Vanuatu. We should consider what it is that helps us to meet
our needs today. We need to make sure that we do not disregard anything, throw

9

anything away, without thinking about it. We can not ignore what we have. If we
ignore it, we ignore it at our own peril.
• We should not be ashamed of what we have, because we are very rich.
• There is also now a strong move to put history, philosophy, etc. into the science
curriculum to make it more human.
• Putting IK into science class is part of being more challenging and thoughtful in
the classroom. We need to find ways to continue to make IK a part of our lives,
and we need to do this before it is too late and this IK is lost.
- Ralph Regenvanu (Vanuatu Cultural Centre – VKS):
• The Rethinking Vanuatu Education conference last year was a time when many
people expressed dissatisfaction with the education system.
• For the VKS, the education system is one of the main obstacles to the
maintenance of custom and culture and community life in Vanuatu.
• IK remains the foundation of the life of the great majority of ni-Vanuatu - living
on their own land, gardening and using it to produce food and materials, living
with and in close relationship to kin, speaking their language. The majority of ni-
Vanuatu live in rural areas, but even those in town follow many of their customs.
The video on urban youth "Kilim Taem" produced by the VKS recorded many
young people expressing a keen desire to learn more of their own customs and
culture.
• If we do not deal with custom knowledge in the classroom we are ignoring a huge
part of life here.
• The majority of Vanuatu is so embedded in custom and culture that our children
can not be told that it is not important.
• The mandate of the VKS is to maintain and promote our cultural heritage. This is
a huge job and we do not have enough energy and resources to tackle everything,
so the VKS has concentrated a lot on education as a primary obstacle that can be
turned into a primary tool.
• Negative views about Vanuatu's culture are reinforced in the educational system
because nothing from our culture is included in the syllabus.
- Russell Nari (Environment Unit - Env.Unit):
• The big issue we have to address is the way we want our children grow up.
• The big challenge is how to link what we have (IK) with that of and from the
outside - in this case, integrating IK into the school system.
• This challenge – how to make the two ends meet – requires a framework to be
developed.
• To give recognition to what we have will provide the foundation of what we need.
- Douglas Nakashima (LINKS/UNESCO):
• We need to transmit IK, not just recognize and identify it.
• The issue of culturally-appropriate education is one that is very important in all
our discussions with indigenous communities all over the world.
• Bringing IK into the classroom is the object of projects in Nicaragua, Chile and
Russia – they have the same concerns as we have in Vanuatu.

10

Setting the Stage I and II: Presentations:
- Douglas Nakashima
“Indigenous Knowledge : Scientific Knowledge – establishing a
basis for an equitable dialogue”
[Powerpoint
presentation]
- Francis Hickey “Examples of possible IK units for science syllabus”
[Powerpoint
presentation]
• Mention of former VKS projects “Kastom fasen blong lukatoem solwora”, canoe
poster and video – posters for young people to understand the value of these
things.
• Example of a traditional fishing net from Tanna - uses ethnobotanical knowledge
to select materials to construct, provides a relationship between people of
different areas (made by a man in the bush), ties different types of knowledge
together (related to plants, tides, seasons, etc).
- Marie Roué "Experiences from indigenous school systems in northern Canada: IK and
formal education"
[Powerpoint
presentation]
• History of school-community education in Nunavik (an Inuit community)
- John Niroa "Overview of the existing national science curriculum"
• The existing curriculum is a foreign one - it is left over from the colonial
curriculum (small adjustments, but mostly the same).
• There is no consideration of IK.
• The course meets two basic requirements for students: 1) providing a general
basis of scientific knowledge and skills, 2) providing an appropriate base and the
ability to follow on to further studies after year 10.
• The syllabus is a mixture of all different science areas (physics, chemisrty,
biology, etc)
• A lot of information is included that is locally relevant (earthquakes, volcanoes,
etc).
• A lot of the same examples/topics are used in different years, but in subsequent
years more difficult concepts relating to these topics are used.
• Year 7 and 8 involve active learning using work cards and textbooks. Year 9 and
10 are more flexible - teachers have access to specific resource books.
• Science teachers have a high turnover rate – therefore, there are teacher guides for
every level.
• Years 7-10 are mostly local manples teachers.
• Examinations are 30% practical and 70% written exam.
• Consistency has been maintained in exam results, probably because of the set
structure of the course and the teacher supports (esp. the teacher guide)
• The teacher guide is central to the course.
• Kids are not afraid of science in Vanuatu; the problem is that in higher levels,
there are not enough materials and equipment (well-equipped labs).
• Only 6 of the schools going up to year 12 offer science courses, and only 2 of
these go up to year 13.
• Number of hours per week has increased to four hours.

11

• Importance of relevancy and linkage of information provided with life outside the
classroom.
• What about beginning the project in the primary level, to start when the kids are
still on their home islands?

Discussion Session: Commentaries from Cultural Centre Fieldworkers and Science
Teachers (Points raised):
Richard Leona

• Needs to be made very clear so that we know what areas and kinds of science we
are talking about
• Examples could include wind directions, signs of impending hurricane (weather
taxonomy)
Eileen Halakua
• Herbal medicine should be included
• Should start with the primary level
Mackin Valia
• We are restricted by the syllabus that is in current use
• Relevance of the current curriculum?
• Recommends integration of science and technology subjects
• Possible topics – weather; navigation; nutrition and health; food production,
preparation and preservation; environment conservation; biodiversity (flora and
fauna); aquaculture; agricultural systems; waste management and pollution;
resource management
Dennison Siaban
• Stresses importance of starting at primary school level
Leiwani Iopa
• Importance of the link between the traditional and formal education systems
• Difficulty with the lack of interaction between children and parents concerning IK
Kalmele Matai
• Curriculum review is currently in process
• Need to train teachers to handle the new syllabus
• Lack of resources is one of the major downfalls
• Importance of good preparation of materials
• Need consistent policy direction
Jack Daniels
• Issue of practice and knowledge - practice is required to attain knowledge
• Purpose of the acquisition of knowledge
• Need to make science more meaningful
• Ties between school and real life – learning things, then going home at Christmas
holidays to research and utilise what has been learned. There is currently a
separation between classroom and community
• IK is passed in the context of the community (immersion, practice)
• Need to incorporate IK into the curriculum that supports what is used in the
classroom
• Need resources in IK

12

Additional Comments
• Being careful with the use of IK – which knowledge NOT to include
• Where should we start? How should it work? Financial and human resources?
• Need agreement of what will be included
• Resources - just as easy to use natural resources, rather than bunsen burners, etc.
• Need to make explanations/examples of a way of thinking about some types of IK
• If we start in primary, the resources are all there to be used - local community and
environment, elders, etc.
• Importance of presenting information in the vernacular
• To what extent do we want to include this information? Making sure that we do
not send a confusing message
• Traditional teaching methods - importance of using traditional pedagogical
methods so that they are utilised by the teachers
• Elders will be more able to work at a primary level – MoE objective is for
management of primary schools by the community itself, so it should not be as
much of a problem
• How to mobilize all communities and homes
• IK not recognized within the current system - this mentality has been around for
too long
• One day a week as cultural awareness day - instruction in the home
• Practice and knowledge – reinforcing kastom practices with scientific knowledge

Tuesday 2/12

Discussion of issues raised on the previous day
* Discussion mostly focussed on primary level:
• Years 1-6 or 8 are community-based schools, therefore possible for students to
utilise culturally-specific IK
• Three subjects in primary: language (English or French), mathematics,
environmental studies
• Environmental studies can be almost entirely IK-based
- is in local vernacular language until end of primary
- already includes agriculture, health, marine biology
• A difficulty is teachers teaching in the vernacular - need trained teachers from the
particular community who know and can use their own language
• More community involvement needed
• Needs to be emphasis on the child/parent partnership in the educational system
• Emphasis must be on student-centered learning/knowledge
• More emphasis/focus on teacher training needed
• Teachers need to be trained in methods to work with the community to ensure
positive interactions between community members and school - i.e. trained to
generate community participation
• Community and Parent Support for Schools (CAPS) is an existing program that
can be assessed and strengthened
• List of community resource people needed

13

• MoE policy to include element of school-based assessment in primary school will
suit primary level IK teaching
• Current revision of curriculum for years 7 and 8 presents great opportunity to
implement IK
• Resources: a student text is not required, but there is a need for a teachers’ guide
which can suggest approaches to facilitate transmission of IK both inside the
classroom and in the community
• Need to facilitate oral presentation and assessment - not just writing
• Some form of assessment of IK learned in the home/community, teaching by
elders, needs to be recognised in the formal system
• Pilot schools- principle is good, to start small, learn from mistakes and gradually
expand

2 groups discussions:
1) How to revise the science curriculum to include IK:

• Different levels - community, primary, junior secondary, senior secondary. What
are the responsibilities for the different groups?
• Awareness - what are we doing? Everyone needs to be aware of what is
happening
• Awareness - for those people who are involved - teachers, leaders in the
community (more specific- not just “what are we doing?”)
• Community level - mobilisation of areas surrounding the primary schools
• Guides for the communities, primary level, and secondary level
• Guide should specify all of the different areas of learning and include activities to
assist the teachers
• Teacher training - facilitated by teachers college
• Make use of the current system (Zone Curriculum Advisors, etc) to assist
• Project coordinator - to gather information from other places - perhaps utilize
teachers?
• NEC – National Education Commission: awareness and approval is necessary
• Entire curriculum revision for secondary level is planned
• Importance of maintaining high quality work on IK so that IK resources are
comparable to Western science resources
2) What should the content be and what resources are available?:
• There should be a significant emphasis in teachers college on how to liaise with
the communities
• Content is in the community; it is the work of the teachers to organise access to
this content
• Secondary level use of IK: compare and contrast examples of IK from island to
island, with student's own culture/knowledge (from primary level), and with
western science
• Nation-wide awareness campaign
• The basis of IK contact is one's own garden
• Garden-making should be assessable in the end-of-primary exam – therefore, a
core unit - but difficulty in urban areas, unless access to gardening space

14

• Possible topics: Names of botanical plants, food preparation/preservation,
resource management, tabus and restrictions
• Supplying optional topics for different types of communities (eg. solwota and
bush communities deal with different ecosystems)
• Issue of resistance by elders to “giving” IK information - how to overcome?

List of potential IK topics for science syllabus:
Gardens…
Seasons - winds, weather features, environmental cues
Names - plants, animals
Naming
Identifying
Classifying
Stories, songs and dances about different plants and animals
The garden cycle
Activities
(gender
tasks)
Resource
management
Resource
conservation
Food from the bush
Non-food materials and essentials – building, medicines, fertilizers, pesticides etc.
Ocean resources
Bush–Solwota relation
Nakamal – relationship to housing
Specific environments/different ecosystems
Transportation
Disaster preparedness and management
Food preparation/preservation
Nutrition and health
Navigation
People’s observations of change
Traditional monitoring techniques
Traditional boundary markers
Traditional resource mapping (identifying niche environments) (in time and space)

Wednesday 3/12

Development of Action Plan

(these notes are transcribed from the pin-up sheets presented by the groups)

FOCUS levels for activities:
1. Community
2. Primary (focus on Environmental Studies subject, in vernacular)
3. Junior secondary
4. Senior secondary (teacher’s guides will be useful at this level as well)


15

PRIORITY needs:
1. Teacher’s guide
2. Community guide
3. Teacher training

SHORT TERM Goals:
1. Incorporate topics into existing syllabus
2. Awareness (ongoing)
3. Research with elders
4. Identify schools already using IK and community resources and assess lessons
learnt (Tanna Kastom School, Lamen Bay High School, North Pentecost, 12 first-
year-vernacular schools)
5. Collate existing resources/materials
6. Production of guides - compile concrete examples and activities; facilitate and
assist building school-community interactions
7. Make home-enquiry required for all students
8. NEC approval
9. Teacher training - includes eventually revising curriculum at Teachers College to
include focus on working with the community

ORDER OF PRIORITY (time-wise) for achieving SHORT TERM Goals:
1. Awareness
2. NEC approval
3. Identify schools
4. Home enquiry
5. Collate existing resources
4/5 Research with elders
6. Incorporate topics into existing syllabus
7. Production of guides
8. Teacher training

ACTIVITIES under each heading:
1. Awareness
• VKS, MoE, Env.Unit radio programs - can be done immediately by each
organisation with no additional resources required
• Prepare paper for NEC
• Develop Bislama concept paper for awareness purposes –
- distribute to VNCW, chiefs, NGOs, etc
- distribute to Government Depts and through their networks
- special session with Malvatumauri
• Continue to use good opportunities to raise awareness
• School competition (poster or essay)
• Use MoE network to target teachers
• LINKS Bislama poster
• Special ZCA/principals meeting on this initiative (include inspectors)

16

Tree of Knowledge - get copies to distribute to schools/teachers - also Rethinking
Vanuatu Education
2. NEC Approval (Kalmele and John)
• Get political support
• Kalmele/John- see Minister
• Put Action Plan into appropriate format
• Present to NEC
3. Identify schools - lessons learnt
• MoE to identify schools
• Send questionnaires (open-ended questions, successes and difficulties) - detailed
info to be provided - community responses also sought
• Can be follow-up visits to good case studies
• Report on lessons learnt (John Niroa)
• Evaluate CAPS program and lessons learnt (esp. SANMA)
4. Home enquiry by students/research with elders
• Concept paper (VKS) to go to NEC
• NEC approval
• Then list of questions/topics to all teachers/schools
• Provenance info. (VKS)
• Class 5 and up
• Fieldworkers as resource people
• Info collected to be forwarded to ZCA, then upwards
• Oral presentations included (not information collection, but developing
attitude/process)
5. Collate existing information (resources/materials)
• CBEMP (Capacity Building for Environmental Management in the Pacific)
• NBSAP (National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan)
• VKS archives
• UNESCO compilation of bibliography
• CNRS
• IRD (formerly Orstom)
6. Incorporate topics into existing syllabus (Secondary level)
• Year 7: "Observing living things"
Naming/identification/classification of flora and fauna (marine and terrestrial)
• Year 8: "Ecology"
Resource mapping/habitat
Season/garden cycles
Ethnobotany/zoology
Different ecosystems
Disaster preparedness
Navigation
Monitoring changes
• Year 9: "Earth Science"
• Year 10: "Biosphere"
Resource management and conservation

17

• Year 7-10: "Technology"
Nutrition
Food
preparation/preservation
Crafts
• Year 11-12: interrelationships, systems of spiritual values
• Social Science and Agriculture also to be targeted
7. Production of Guides – concrete IK examples
• First task – examples of all topics
• Short term - make a resource book and teachers guide, and include AV materials
8. Teacher Training

TIMETABLE and AGENCIES RESPONSIBLE:
1. Awareness
Target Activities

Time Who
Radio program
Plan together
End of Dec
VKS, MoE, EUnit
Newspapers
Articles
As appropriate
MoE, VKS, EUnit
Prepare paper for
December
Ralph,
etc.
NEC
Sessions with
Visit to talk with
December/January Ralph,
John,
Malvatumauri/VNCW these
Russell
School competition
Essays, posters
Term 1 and 2
VKS, EUnit
Posters Materials
March LINKS
and
Tim
collection,translation
Tree of Opportunity
Purchase enough
End of 2004
MoE
and Rethinking
copies for secondary
Vanuatu Education
schools
report

3. Identify Schools- Lessons Learnt
Targets Activities

Time
Who
Cost
Identify
Dec
MoE
schools

Prepare
Jan
MoE, ZCAs, principal Get input from
questionnaire
students, parents,
and letter –
PEO, etc.
what they did,
what worked
and what didn’t

Look at
March MoE, VKS, EUnit

feedback

Visit to
By


selected
May
schools, if
needed

Report
June John
Niroa

(progress)

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Evaluate CAPS Evaluation of
End
ZCAs, fieldworkers
Out of this
(Tafea, Shefa)
activity
of
develop package
term 1
for teacher training
for long term

4. Home Enquiry by Students

1. VKS to develop concept paper (Input of MoE and Env.Unit)
Needs to include
Objectives
(background
info:
read, initiative) global context
Strategy


Methodology (LINKS can provide)
Provide
examples
1.5 Develop activities/questionnaire
-Sara, Francis, Ralph, Russell, John N., primary teachers
-Target primary, then extract and create more complex examples for secondary
students (school holidays)
-collective and individual activities
-in vernacular
-produce small pamphlet (to explain reason why doing this, then, activities and
specific questions)
-each day: five-minute presentation
-bimonthly: collective activity and presentation (eg. vocabulary comparison)
-each year: different set of questions/activities (eg. show and tell)
-one question per day/week, etc?
-what about urban students?
2. For primary - for Jan.
For secondary - for November
3. Seek funds for publishing guides - CDC can do (find out costs)
-distribute through educational system
-two steps:

1. one-page info guide - by the end of January

2. full set - by May holidays

3. secondary - by October in schools

5. Collate existing info

7. Production of guides: concrete examples
-
John will identify a counterpart for next year
-model on National History Curriculum Project
-seek funding for a person (scientist with good knowledge of Vanuatu) for two years,
based at VKS
-Advisory Committee (MoE/CDC, VKS, Env.Unit)
-joint project profile
-LINKS can provide contracts to start developing specific examples - people to work
with the counterpart (by March)

19

8. Teacher Training
Target Activities

Time
Who
Current teachers
-in-service
After ZCA
ZCAs
-strengthen existing (2 weeks x 2 phases)
support systems
Fieldworkers
In-service in
After teachers guides

ZCA
zones/provinces
(2 weeks x 2 phases)
Advisors
Principals
Community
-awareness
After the program is
Teachers
coordinating
presented to teachers
-help identify
(2 weeks x 2 phases)
resource persons
VITE
-part of program
2006 VITE
diploma/certificate
-in-service
-new teachers
coordination
-in-service
(upgrading)

Evaluation
Annually for the first
Semi-independent
3-5 years
team (incl. team)
Teachers
Training of


vernacular


20

The UNESCO-LINKS, Ministry of Education, Environment Unit and Vanuatu
Cultural Centre project:


"Strengthening indigenous knowledge and traditional resource
management through schools: A pilot partnership involving local
communities, teachers, resource managers and culture
specialists"

* Brainstorming Workshop: 1st-4th December 2003 *

FINANCIAL REPORT:

Funds recieved from UNESCO on 26/11/03: 453,280

vatu

Expenditure incurred to date:

Item






Amount (Vatu)

1) Air tickets for outer-island-based participants

62,940

(Richard Leona, Dennison Siaban, Mackin Valia)

2) Per diems for 2 outer-island-based participants @ 10,000 20,000

(Richard Leona, Dennison Siaban)

3) Per diems for 1 outer-island-based participant @ 7,000 7,000
(Mackin
Valia)

4) Other transport costs, outer-island-based participants
27,000

5) Bus fares, 8 Port Vila-based participants @ 1000
8,000

6)
Stationery


22,246

7) Equipment (replacement of photocopy machine drum) 29,910

8) Venue hire: 3.5 days @ 10,000



35,000

9) Telephone and fax costs



9,800

10) Morning and afternoon teas and lunches (3 days)
65,000

11) Organisation of meeting (Vanuatu Cultural Centre)
100,000

Total
386,896


21

Additional Expenditure Items to be paid upon receiving balance of funds from
UNESCO:

12)
Translation
fees
135,000
(invoice enclosed)

13) Production of meeting report and action plan

14) Distribution of report and action plan to all participants and other stakeholders

15) Miscellaneous unanticipated expenses

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